Background. Renal dysfunction is associated with poor long-term outcomes after liver transplantation. We examined the renal sparing effect of everolimus (EVR) compared to standard calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) immunosuppression with direct measurements of renal function over 24 months. Methods. This was a prospective, randomized, open-label trial comparing EVR and mycophenolic acid (MPA) with CNI and MPA immunosuppression. An Investigational New Drug Application (IND # 113882) was obtained with the Food and Drug Administration as EVR is only approved for use with low-dose tacrolimus. Serum creatinine, 24-hour urine creatinine clearance, iothalamate clearance, Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance (CrCl), and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease estimated glomerular filtration rate were prospectively measured at 4 study visits. Nonparametric statistical tests were used for analyses, including the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous outcomes and Pearson's chi-square test for binary outcomes. Effect size was measured using Cohen's d. Patients also completed quality of life surveys using the FACT-Hep instrument at each study visit. Comparison between the 2 groups was performed using the Student t test. Results. Each arm had 12 subjects; 4 patients dropped out in the EVR arm and 1 in the CNI arm by 24 months. Serum creatinine (P = 0.015), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.013), and 24-hour urine CrCL (P = 0.032) were significantly better at 24 months with EVR. Iothalamate clearance showed significant improvement at 12 months (P = 0.049) and a trend toward better renal function (P = 0.099) at 24 months. There was no statistical significance with Cockcroft-Gault CrCl. Adverse events were not significantly different between the 2 arms. The EVR group also showed significantly better physical, functional, and overall self-reported quality of life (P = 0.01) at 24 months. Conclusions. EVR with MPA resulted in significant long-term improvement in renal function and quality of life at 24 months after liver transplantation compared with standard CNI with MPA immunosuppression.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes