Replication, variation and normalisation in microarray experiments

Naomi S. Altman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (SciVal)


Introduction: Microarray experiments often have complex designs that include sample pooling, biological and technical replication, sample pairing and dye-swapping. This article demonstrates how statistical modelling can illuminate issues in the design and analysis of microarray experiments, and this information can then be used to plan effective studies. Methods: A very detailed statistical model for microarray data is introduced, to show the possible sources of variation that are present in even the simplest microarray experiments. Based on this model, the efficacy of common experimental designs, normalisation methodologies and analyses is determined. Results: When the cost of the arrays is high compared with the cost of samples, sample pooling and spot replication are shown to be efficient variance reduction methods, whereas technical replication of whole arrays is demonstrated to be very inefficient. Dye-swap designs can use biological replicates rather than technical replicates to improve efficiency and simplify analysis. When the cost of samples is high and technical variation is a major portion of the error, technical replication can be cost effective. Normalisation by centreing on a small number of spots may reduce array effects, but can introduce considerable variation in the results. Centreing using the bulk of spots on the array is less variable. Similarly, normalisation methods based on regression methods can introduce variability. Except for normalisation methods based on spiking controls, all normalisation requires that most genes do not differentially express. Methods based on spatial location and/or intensity also require that the nondifferentially expressing genes are at random with respect to location and intensity. Spotting designs should be carefully done so that spot replicates are widely spaced on the array, and genes with similar expression patterns are not clustered. Discussion: The tools for statistical design of experiments can be applied to microarray experiments to improve both efficiency and validity of the studies. Given the high cost of microarray experiments, the benefits of statistical input prior to running the experiment cannot be over-emphasised.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-44
Number of pages12
JournalApplied Bioinformatics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Aug 5 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Information Systems
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Computer Science Applications


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