Residents of eight different locations in Kathmandu, four in the inner city and four on the outskirts, were interviewed about environmental stressors, mental distress, and physical symptoms. There were significant gender and location differences on all three measures. Compared to men, women reported more mental distress and more physical symptoms, but fewer environmental stressors. Compared to residents of the inner city, residents of the outskirts reported more mental distress, more physical symptoms, and fewer environmental stressors. Environmental stressors were linked to mental distress among residents in the outskirts but were not linked to mental distress among residents in the inner city. Results suggested that residents’ belief in perceived control of their lives by God partially explained this effect.
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