The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of training on the immune activation in skeletal muscle in response to an acute bout of resistance exercise (RE). Seven young healthy men and women underwent a 12-wk supervised progressive unilateral arm RE training program. One week after the last training session, subjects performed an acute bout of bilateral RE in which the trained and the untrained arm exercised at the same relative intensity. Muscle biopsies were obtained 4 h postexercise from the biceps brachii of both arms and assessed for global transcriptom using Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 microarrays. Significantly regulated biological processes and gene groups were analyzed using a logistic regression-based method following differential (trained vs. untrained) gene expression testing via an intensity-based Bayesian moderated t-test. The results from the present study suggest that training blunts the transcriptional upregulation of immune activation by minimizing expression of genes involved in monocyte recruitment and enhancing gene expression involved in macrophage anti-inflammatory polarization. Additionally, our data suggest that training blunts the transcriptional upregulation of the stress response and the downregulation of glucose metabolism, mitochondrial structure, and oxidative phosphorylation, and it enhances the transcriptional upregulation of the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton development and organization and the downregulation of gene transcription and muscle contraction. This study provides novel insight into the molecular processes involved in the adaptive response of skeletal muscle following RE training and the cellular and molecular events implicating the protective role of training on muscle stress and damage inflicted by acute mechanical loading.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physiology (medical)