Respondent self-assessment of research on crowding norms in outdoor recreation

Robert E. Manning, Peter Newman, William A. Valliere, Ben Wang, Steven R. Lawson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


This study explores the validity of measuring crowding norms in outdoor recreation through the use of respondent self-assessment techniques. Review of the literature on crowding norms, and the related topic of contingent valuation, suggests a number of theoretical and methodological issues that can influence validity. Based on this literature review, measures of respondent self-assessment of crowding norms research are developed and applied at multiple sites within three national parks. Study findings suggest that most respondents are confident in their ability to understand and answer questions on crowding norms, and support the use of such data by park managers. Few differences in crowding norms were found between respondents who were confident in their answers and those who were less confident. These findings, along with findings from other, related studies, offer some support for the validity of measures of crowding norms in outdoor recreation, and suggest research approaches to maximize validity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-271
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Leisure Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2001

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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