Objective: The primary aim of this study was to compare the resting energy expenditure of patients with intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia. A secondary aim was to identify predictors of resting energy expenditure. Methods: One hundred patients limited by intermittent claudication and 40 patients with critical limb ischemia participated in this study. Patients were assessed on resting energy expenditure, body composition, ankle brachial index (ABI), and calf blood flow. Results: Patients with critical limb ischemia had a lower resting energy expenditure than patients with intermittent claudication (1429 ± 190 kcal/day vs 1563 ± 229 kcal/day; P = .004), and higher body fat percentage (34.8 ± 7.8% vs 31.5 ± 7.8%; P = .037), higher fat mass (30.0 ± 9.3 kg vs 26.2 ± 8.9 kg;P = .016), and lower ABI (0.31 ± 0.11 vs 0.79 ± 0.23; P < .001). Resting energy expenditure was predicted by fat free mass (P < .0001), age (P < .0001), ABI (P < .0001), ethnicity (P < .0001), calf blood flow (P = .005), and diabetes (P = .008). Resting energy expenditure remained lower in the patients with critical limb ischemia after adjusting for clinical characteristics plus fat free mass (1473 ± 27.8 kcal/day [mean ± SEM] vs 1527 ± 19.3 kcal/day; P = .031), but it was no longer different between groups after further adjustment for ABI and calf blood flow (1494 ± 25.2 kcal/day vs 1505 ± 17.7 kcal/day; P = .269). Conclusion: Resting energy expenditure is decreased with a progression in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) symptoms from intermittent claudication to critical limb ischemia. Furthermore, patients with critical limb ischemia who are most susceptible for decline in resting energy expenditure are older, African American patients with diabetes. The lower resting energy expenditure of patients with critical limb ischemia, combined with their sedentary lifestyle, suggests that they are at high risk for long-term positive energy balance and weight gain.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine