Bilateral lower extremity swelling can have several causes. Several of these causes can be present in the same patient at the same time. Retroperitoneal fibrosis, a rare cause of compression of retroperitoneal structures, is incompletely understood. It most commonly produces compression of the ureters but, more rarely, it can cause compression of the inferior vena cava, gonadal veins, lymphatics, or autonomic nervous system. Nursing support and coordination can have a positive impact on helping the patient and family cope with this difficult disease process. This article will review a case report with patient care implications.
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