Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation (PoAF) is the most common arrhythmia after heart surgery, and continues to be a major cause of morbidity Due to the complexity of this condition, many genes and/or environmental factors may play a role in susceptibility. Previous findings have shown several clinical and genetic risk factors for the development of PoAF The goal of this study was to determine whether interactions among candidate genes and a variety of clinical factors are associated with PoAF. We applied the Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) method to detect interactions in a sample of 940 adult subjects undergoing elective procedures of the heart or great vessels, requiring general anesthesia and stemotomy or thoracototny, where 255 developed PoAF. We took a random sample of controls matched to the 255 AF cases for a total sample size of 510 individuals. MDR is a powerful statistical approach used to detect gene-gene or gene-environment interactions in the presence or absence of statistically detectable main effects in pharmacogenomics studies We chose polymorphisms in three (IL-6, ACE, and ApoE) candidate genes, all previously implicated in PoAF risk, and a variety of environmental factors for analysis. We detected a single locus effect of IL-6 which is able to correctly predict disease status with 58.8% (p<0.001) accuracy. We also detected an interaction between history of AF and length of hospital stay that predicted disease status with 68 34% (pO.OOl) accuracy. These findings demonstrate the utility of novel computational approaches for the detection of disease susceptibility genes. While each of these results looks interesting, they only explain part of PoAF susceptibility. It will be important to collect a larger set of candidate genes and environmental factors to better characterize the development of PoAF, Applying this approach, we were able to elucidate potential associations with postoperative atrial fibrillation.