One hundred thirty consecutive patients who underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR) or MVR with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using cold crystalloid cardioplegic solution were analyzed to determine operative mortality and risk factors. Twenty-eight patients had mitral stenosis (MS), 37 had mitral regurgitation (MR), 37 had mixed MS and MR, 23 had MR with coronary artery disease (CAD), and 5 had MS with CAD. Preoperative pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and cardiac index were not different among groups, but patients with MR and CAD had a significantly higher left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and a significantly lower ejection fraction than other groups. Mortality was 7.1% for patients with MS, 5.4% for MR, 8.1% for mixed MS and MR, 0 for MS with CAD, and 21.7% for MR and CAD. Overall mortality was 9.2%. Eleven patients had emergency operations for cardiogenic shock with a mortality of 45%. Nineteen additional patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Class IV had MVR or MVR plus CABG with a mortality of 26%. Sixteen patients required intraaortic balloon pump assistance, and 9 survived. Four patients with MR and CAD required the left ventricular assist device, and 3 survived. Excluding patients who had emergency operations, overall mortality was 5.8%. Excluding patients who had emergency operations and patients in NYHA Functional Class IV, overall mortality was 2%. Factors associated with death were cardiogenic shock, NYHA Class IV, LVEDP greater than 15 mm Hg (16% mortality), and age greater than 60 years (15% mortality).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine