Background: Use of rituximab (RTX) for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and minimal change disease (MCD) is widely described in children. Clinical evidence in adults is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the treatment outcomes of RTX in adults with FSGS and MCD. Methods: Ovid MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched up to September 2019. Out of 699 studies, we included 16 studies describing the treatment outcomes of rituximab in adult patients with FSGS or MCD. Results were reported in remission rate and relapse rate. Serious adverse events were also reported. Results: A total of 16 studies were included in our review and analysis. All studies were observational studies and included a total of 221 patients (23.1% FSGS, 76.9% MCD). Mean follow-up duration was 26.3 ± 12.8 months. From the analysis of five studies with FSGS patients (n = 51), the overall remission rate and relapse rate of RTX therapy was 53.6% (95% CI, 15.8-87.6%) and 47.3% (95% CI, 25.4-70.2%), respectively. Complete remission occurred in 42.9%. In contrast, from the analysis of 11 studies with MCD patients (n = 170), the overall remission rate and relapse rate of RTX therapy was 80.3% (95% CI, 68.5-88.5%) and 35.9% (95% CI, 25.1-48.4), respectively. Complete remission occurred in 74.7%. Subgroup analyses showed that overall remission and relapse were not different after adjusted for study year and RTX dose for both FSGS and MCD. Incidence of serious adverse events was 0.092 events/year. Conclusions: Rituximab may be considered as an additional treatment to the standard therapy for adult patients with FSGS and MCD. Remissions and relapses are similar between FSGS and MCD. Serious adverse effects of rituximab were uncommon. We encourage further randomized controlled trials to confirm the efficacy of rituximab therapy in these patients.
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