Robust and fragile aspects of cortical blood flow in relation to the underlying angioarchitecture

Andy Y. Shih, Charlotta Rühlmann, Pablo Blinder, Anna Devor, Patrick J. Drew, Beth Friedman, Per M. Knutsen, Patrick D. Lyden, Céline Matéo, Lisa Mellander, Nozomi Nishimura, Chris B. Schaffer, Philbert S. Tsai, David Kleinfeld

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

37 Scopus citations

Abstract

We review the organizational principles of the cortical vasculature and the underlying patterns of blood flow under normal conditions and in response to occlusion of single vessels. The cortex is sourced by a two-dimensional network of pial arterioles that feeds a three-dimensional network of subsurface microvessels in close proximity to neurons and glia. Blood flow within the surface and subsurface networks is largely insensitive to occlusion of a single vessel within either network. However, the penetrating arterioles that connect the pial network to the subsurface network are bottlenecks to flow; occlusion of even a single penetrating arteriole results in the death of a 500 μm diameter cylinder of cortical tissue despite the potential for collateral flow through microvessels. This pattern of flow is consistent with that calculated from a full reconstruction of the angioarchitecture. Conceptually, collateral flow is insufficient to compensate for the occlusion of a penetrating arteriole because penetrating venules act as shunts of blood that flows through collaterals. Future directions that stem from the analysis of the angioarchitecture concern cellular-level issues, in particular the regulation of blood flow within the subsurface microvascular network, and system-level issues, in particular the role of penetrating arteriole occlusions in human cognitive impairment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)204-218
Number of pages15
JournalMicrocirculation
Volume22
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Shih, A. Y., Rühlmann, C., Blinder, P., Devor, A., Drew, P. J., Friedman, B., Knutsen, P. M., Lyden, P. D., Matéo, C., Mellander, L., Nishimura, N., Schaffer, C. B., Tsai, P. S., & Kleinfeld, D. (2015). Robust and fragile aspects of cortical blood flow in relation to the underlying angioarchitecture. Microcirculation, 22(3), 204-218. https://doi.org/10.1111/micc.12195