Role of trabecular morphology in the etiology of age-related vertebral fractures

B. D. Snyder, Stephen Jacob Piazza, W. T. Edwards, W. C. Hayes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

134 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Osteoporotic compression fractures of the spine differ from most other age-related fractures in that they usually are associated with minimal trauma and with loads no greater than those encountered during normal activities of daily living. With aging and osteoporosis, there is progressive resorption of bone, resulting in reductions in bone density, thinning of trabeculae, and loss of trabecular contiguity. These changes in trabecular bone structure are associated with losses in bone strength which are disproportionate to the reductions in bone mass alone. To explain this disproportionate loss of bone strength, the prevailing opinion is that density reductions in the vertebral centrum are accompanied by a reduction in the number of trabeculae, by preferential resorption of horizontal trabeculae, and by hypertrophy of the remaining vertical trabeculae. To evaluate this view of vertebral morphology, we performed three-dimensional stereological analysis of trabecular bone extracted from midsagittal sections of first lumbar vertebral bodies from 12 donors spanning an age of 27-81 years. We found that both the number (R2 = 0.63, P < 0.01) and thickness (R2 = 0.91, P < 0.01) of trabeculae decreased linearly with density (as expressed by bone volume fraction) whereas the spacing between the trabeculae (R2 = 0.61, P < 0.01) increased reciprocally. There were more vertical trabeculae with transverse trabeculae at all densities, and the number of vertical trabeculae changed with density at twice the rate of the number of transverse trabeculae (P < 0.001). These data do not support the prevailing view that there is preferential resorption of horizontal trabeculae or hypertrophy of the remaining vertical trabeculae. Bone density was also a strong (R2 = 0.90, P < 0.01) power law function of the ratio of trabecular thickness to mean intertrabecular spacing. From buckling theory, the critical buckling load of a trabecula is related to this ratio of trabecular thickness to effective length. The changes in trabecular morphology observed with decreasing bone density thus pose a "triple threat" to the strength and stability of vertebral trabecular bone, as not only are there fewer trabeculae, but the remaining trabeculae are both thinner and longer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCalcified Tissue International
Volume53
Issue number1 Supplement
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 1993

Fingerprint

Bone Density
Bone and Bones
Hypertrophy
Compression Fractures
Osteoporotic Fractures
Bone Resorption
Activities of Daily Living
Osteoporosis
Spine
Wounds and Injuries
Cancellous Bone

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

@article{f43407296da44846b2c2fb01ebf79c99,
title = "Role of trabecular morphology in the etiology of age-related vertebral fractures",
abstract = "Osteoporotic compression fractures of the spine differ from most other age-related fractures in that they usually are associated with minimal trauma and with loads no greater than those encountered during normal activities of daily living. With aging and osteoporosis, there is progressive resorption of bone, resulting in reductions in bone density, thinning of trabeculae, and loss of trabecular contiguity. These changes in trabecular bone structure are associated with losses in bone strength which are disproportionate to the reductions in bone mass alone. To explain this disproportionate loss of bone strength, the prevailing opinion is that density reductions in the vertebral centrum are accompanied by a reduction in the number of trabeculae, by preferential resorption of horizontal trabeculae, and by hypertrophy of the remaining vertical trabeculae. To evaluate this view of vertebral morphology, we performed three-dimensional stereological analysis of trabecular bone extracted from midsagittal sections of first lumbar vertebral bodies from 12 donors spanning an age of 27-81 years. We found that both the number (R2 = 0.63, P < 0.01) and thickness (R2 = 0.91, P < 0.01) of trabeculae decreased linearly with density (as expressed by bone volume fraction) whereas the spacing between the trabeculae (R2 = 0.61, P < 0.01) increased reciprocally. There were more vertical trabeculae with transverse trabeculae at all densities, and the number of vertical trabeculae changed with density at twice the rate of the number of transverse trabeculae (P < 0.001). These data do not support the prevailing view that there is preferential resorption of horizontal trabeculae or hypertrophy of the remaining vertical trabeculae. Bone density was also a strong (R2 = 0.90, P < 0.01) power law function of the ratio of trabecular thickness to mean intertrabecular spacing. From buckling theory, the critical buckling load of a trabecula is related to this ratio of trabecular thickness to effective length. The changes in trabecular morphology observed with decreasing bone density thus pose a {"}triple threat{"} to the strength and stability of vertebral trabecular bone, as not only are there fewer trabeculae, but the remaining trabeculae are both thinner and longer.",
author = "Snyder, {B. D.} and Piazza, {Stephen Jacob} and Edwards, {W. T.} and Hayes, {W. C.}",
year = "1993",
month = "2",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/BF01673396",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "53",
journal = "Calcified Tissue International",
issn = "0171-967X",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "1 Supplement",

}

Role of trabecular morphology in the etiology of age-related vertebral fractures. / Snyder, B. D.; Piazza, Stephen Jacob; Edwards, W. T.; Hayes, W. C.

In: Calcified Tissue International, Vol. 53, No. 1 Supplement, 01.02.1993.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Role of trabecular morphology in the etiology of age-related vertebral fractures

AU - Snyder, B. D.

AU - Piazza, Stephen Jacob

AU - Edwards, W. T.

AU - Hayes, W. C.

PY - 1993/2/1

Y1 - 1993/2/1

N2 - Osteoporotic compression fractures of the spine differ from most other age-related fractures in that they usually are associated with minimal trauma and with loads no greater than those encountered during normal activities of daily living. With aging and osteoporosis, there is progressive resorption of bone, resulting in reductions in bone density, thinning of trabeculae, and loss of trabecular contiguity. These changes in trabecular bone structure are associated with losses in bone strength which are disproportionate to the reductions in bone mass alone. To explain this disproportionate loss of bone strength, the prevailing opinion is that density reductions in the vertebral centrum are accompanied by a reduction in the number of trabeculae, by preferential resorption of horizontal trabeculae, and by hypertrophy of the remaining vertical trabeculae. To evaluate this view of vertebral morphology, we performed three-dimensional stereological analysis of trabecular bone extracted from midsagittal sections of first lumbar vertebral bodies from 12 donors spanning an age of 27-81 years. We found that both the number (R2 = 0.63, P < 0.01) and thickness (R2 = 0.91, P < 0.01) of trabeculae decreased linearly with density (as expressed by bone volume fraction) whereas the spacing between the trabeculae (R2 = 0.61, P < 0.01) increased reciprocally. There were more vertical trabeculae with transverse trabeculae at all densities, and the number of vertical trabeculae changed with density at twice the rate of the number of transverse trabeculae (P < 0.001). These data do not support the prevailing view that there is preferential resorption of horizontal trabeculae or hypertrophy of the remaining vertical trabeculae. Bone density was also a strong (R2 = 0.90, P < 0.01) power law function of the ratio of trabecular thickness to mean intertrabecular spacing. From buckling theory, the critical buckling load of a trabecula is related to this ratio of trabecular thickness to effective length. The changes in trabecular morphology observed with decreasing bone density thus pose a "triple threat" to the strength and stability of vertebral trabecular bone, as not only are there fewer trabeculae, but the remaining trabeculae are both thinner and longer.

AB - Osteoporotic compression fractures of the spine differ from most other age-related fractures in that they usually are associated with minimal trauma and with loads no greater than those encountered during normal activities of daily living. With aging and osteoporosis, there is progressive resorption of bone, resulting in reductions in bone density, thinning of trabeculae, and loss of trabecular contiguity. These changes in trabecular bone structure are associated with losses in bone strength which are disproportionate to the reductions in bone mass alone. To explain this disproportionate loss of bone strength, the prevailing opinion is that density reductions in the vertebral centrum are accompanied by a reduction in the number of trabeculae, by preferential resorption of horizontal trabeculae, and by hypertrophy of the remaining vertical trabeculae. To evaluate this view of vertebral morphology, we performed three-dimensional stereological analysis of trabecular bone extracted from midsagittal sections of first lumbar vertebral bodies from 12 donors spanning an age of 27-81 years. We found that both the number (R2 = 0.63, P < 0.01) and thickness (R2 = 0.91, P < 0.01) of trabeculae decreased linearly with density (as expressed by bone volume fraction) whereas the spacing between the trabeculae (R2 = 0.61, P < 0.01) increased reciprocally. There were more vertical trabeculae with transverse trabeculae at all densities, and the number of vertical trabeculae changed with density at twice the rate of the number of transverse trabeculae (P < 0.001). These data do not support the prevailing view that there is preferential resorption of horizontal trabeculae or hypertrophy of the remaining vertical trabeculae. Bone density was also a strong (R2 = 0.90, P < 0.01) power law function of the ratio of trabecular thickness to mean intertrabecular spacing. From buckling theory, the critical buckling load of a trabecula is related to this ratio of trabecular thickness to effective length. The changes in trabecular morphology observed with decreasing bone density thus pose a "triple threat" to the strength and stability of vertebral trabecular bone, as not only are there fewer trabeculae, but the remaining trabeculae are both thinner and longer.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027220044&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027220044&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/BF01673396

DO - 10.1007/BF01673396

M3 - Article

C2 - 8275369

AN - SCOPUS:0027220044

VL - 53

JO - Calcified Tissue International

JF - Calcified Tissue International

SN - 0171-967X

IS - 1 Supplement

ER -