The change of helicopter rotor broadband noise due to different surface roughness during ice accretion is investigated. Comprehensive rotor broadband noise measurements are carried out on rotor blades with different roughness sizes and rotation speeds in two facilities: the Adverse Environment Rotor Test Stand (AERTS) facility at The Pennsylvania State University, and the University of Maryland Acoustic Chamber (UMAC). In both facilities the measured high-frequency broadband noise increases significantly with increasing surface roughness heights. Rotor broadband noise source identification is conducted and the broadband noise related to ice accretion is thought to be turbulent boundary layer trailing edge (TBL-TE) noise. Theory suggests TBL-TE noise scales with Mach number to the fifth power, which is also observed in the experimental data – confirming that the dominant broadband noise mechanism during ice accretion is trailing edge noise. The trailing edge noise theories developed by Ffowcs Williams and Hall, and Howe both identify two important parameters: boundary layer thickness and turbulence intensity. Numerical studies of 2-D airfoils with different ice-induced surface roughness heights are conducted to investigate the extent that surface roughness impacts the boundary layer thickness and turbulence intensity (and ultimately the TBL-TE noise). The results show that boundary layer thickness and turbulence intensity at the trailing edge increase with the increased roughness height. Using Howe’s trailing edge noise model, the increased sound pressure level (SPL) of the trailing edge noise due to the increased displacement thickness and normalized integrated turbulence intensity are 6.2 dB and 1.6 dB for large and small accreted ice roughness heights, respectively. The estimated increased SPL values agree reasonably well with the experimental results, which are 5.8 dB and 2.6 dB for large and small roughness height, respectively.