Runaway greenhouses and runaway glaciations: How stable is Earth’s climate?

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Introduction Is Earth’s climate stable? At some level the answer is almost certainly “yes.” The evidence for this is two-fold. First, the geologic record indicates that liquid water has been present on Earth’s surface more or less continuously since about 4 Ga. (“Ga” stands for “giga-aeon,” which means “billions of years ago.”) We say “more or less” because, as discussed below, there appear to have been brief periods in Earth’s history when the planet was almost entirely frozen. And, second, life appears to have been present since at least 3.5 Ga (Schopf, 1993) and perhaps 3.9 Ga, if carbon isotopes are admitted as indirect evidence (Mojzsis et al., 1996). This latter requirement overlaps the first one to some extent because all organisms require liquid water during at least part of their life cycle. It is more stringent, however, in that liquid water can exist right up to the critical point (374 °C, 220 bar for pure water), whereas the upper temperature limit for life is ∼ 113 °C. (A common misconception is that liquid water requires temperatures below 100 °C, but this is only the boiling point at one atmosphere pressure. The ocean contains the equivalent of ∼ 270 bar of water vapor and so, like water in a pressure cooker, it would not boil until the temperature exceeded the critical temperature.) Another way of evaluating Earth’s climate stability is to compare Earth to its neighboring planets, Venus and Mars.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationFrontiers of Climate Modeling
PublisherCambridge University Press
Pages349-366
Number of pages18
Volume9780521791328
ISBN (Electronic)9780511535857
ISBN (Print)9780521791328
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2006

Fingerprint

glaciation
climate
liquid
water
planet
temperature
Venus
carbon isotope
Mars
water vapor
water temperature
life cycle
fold
atmosphere
ocean
history

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

Cite this

Kasting, J. F. (2006). Runaway greenhouses and runaway glaciations: How stable is Earth’s climate? In Frontiers of Climate Modeling (Vol. 9780521791328, pp. 349-366). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511535857.014
Kasting, James F. / Runaway greenhouses and runaway glaciations : How stable is Earth’s climate?. Frontiers of Climate Modeling. Vol. 9780521791328 Cambridge University Press, 2006. pp. 349-366
@inbook{11a7ae998a3b4152ba3edb461fcdd0d4,
title = "Runaway greenhouses and runaway glaciations: How stable is Earth’s climate?",
abstract = "Introduction Is Earth’s climate stable? At some level the answer is almost certainly “yes.” The evidence for this is two-fold. First, the geologic record indicates that liquid water has been present on Earth’s surface more or less continuously since about 4 Ga. (“Ga” stands for “giga-aeon,” which means “billions of years ago.”) We say “more or less” because, as discussed below, there appear to have been brief periods in Earth’s history when the planet was almost entirely frozen. And, second, life appears to have been present since at least 3.5 Ga (Schopf, 1993) and perhaps 3.9 Ga, if carbon isotopes are admitted as indirect evidence (Mojzsis et al., 1996). This latter requirement overlaps the first one to some extent because all organisms require liquid water during at least part of their life cycle. It is more stringent, however, in that liquid water can exist right up to the critical point (374 °C, 220 bar for pure water), whereas the upper temperature limit for life is ∼ 113 °C. (A common misconception is that liquid water requires temperatures below 100 °C, but this is only the boiling point at one atmosphere pressure. The ocean contains the equivalent of ∼ 270 bar of water vapor and so, like water in a pressure cooker, it would not boil until the temperature exceeded the critical temperature.) Another way of evaluating Earth’s climate stability is to compare Earth to its neighboring planets, Venus and Mars.",
author = "Kasting, {James F.}",
year = "2006",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1017/CBO9780511535857.014",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9780521791328",
volume = "9780521791328",
pages = "349--366",
booktitle = "Frontiers of Climate Modeling",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",
address = "United Kingdom",

}

Kasting, JF 2006, Runaway greenhouses and runaway glaciations: How stable is Earth’s climate? in Frontiers of Climate Modeling. vol. 9780521791328, Cambridge University Press, pp. 349-366. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511535857.014

Runaway greenhouses and runaway glaciations : How stable is Earth’s climate? / Kasting, James F.

Frontiers of Climate Modeling. Vol. 9780521791328 Cambridge University Press, 2006. p. 349-366.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

TY - CHAP

T1 - Runaway greenhouses and runaway glaciations

T2 - How stable is Earth’s climate?

AU - Kasting, James F.

PY - 2006/1/1

Y1 - 2006/1/1

N2 - Introduction Is Earth’s climate stable? At some level the answer is almost certainly “yes.” The evidence for this is two-fold. First, the geologic record indicates that liquid water has been present on Earth’s surface more or less continuously since about 4 Ga. (“Ga” stands for “giga-aeon,” which means “billions of years ago.”) We say “more or less” because, as discussed below, there appear to have been brief periods in Earth’s history when the planet was almost entirely frozen. And, second, life appears to have been present since at least 3.5 Ga (Schopf, 1993) and perhaps 3.9 Ga, if carbon isotopes are admitted as indirect evidence (Mojzsis et al., 1996). This latter requirement overlaps the first one to some extent because all organisms require liquid water during at least part of their life cycle. It is more stringent, however, in that liquid water can exist right up to the critical point (374 °C, 220 bar for pure water), whereas the upper temperature limit for life is ∼ 113 °C. (A common misconception is that liquid water requires temperatures below 100 °C, but this is only the boiling point at one atmosphere pressure. The ocean contains the equivalent of ∼ 270 bar of water vapor and so, like water in a pressure cooker, it would not boil until the temperature exceeded the critical temperature.) Another way of evaluating Earth’s climate stability is to compare Earth to its neighboring planets, Venus and Mars.

AB - Introduction Is Earth’s climate stable? At some level the answer is almost certainly “yes.” The evidence for this is two-fold. First, the geologic record indicates that liquid water has been present on Earth’s surface more or less continuously since about 4 Ga. (“Ga” stands for “giga-aeon,” which means “billions of years ago.”) We say “more or less” because, as discussed below, there appear to have been brief periods in Earth’s history when the planet was almost entirely frozen. And, second, life appears to have been present since at least 3.5 Ga (Schopf, 1993) and perhaps 3.9 Ga, if carbon isotopes are admitted as indirect evidence (Mojzsis et al., 1996). This latter requirement overlaps the first one to some extent because all organisms require liquid water during at least part of their life cycle. It is more stringent, however, in that liquid water can exist right up to the critical point (374 °C, 220 bar for pure water), whereas the upper temperature limit for life is ∼ 113 °C. (A common misconception is that liquid water requires temperatures below 100 °C, but this is only the boiling point at one atmosphere pressure. The ocean contains the equivalent of ∼ 270 bar of water vapor and so, like water in a pressure cooker, it would not boil until the temperature exceeded the critical temperature.) Another way of evaluating Earth’s climate stability is to compare Earth to its neighboring planets, Venus and Mars.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84927117439&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84927117439&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/CBO9780511535857.014

DO - 10.1017/CBO9780511535857.014

M3 - Chapter

AN - SCOPUS:84927117439

SN - 9780521791328

VL - 9780521791328

SP - 349

EP - 366

BT - Frontiers of Climate Modeling

PB - Cambridge University Press

ER -

Kasting JF. Runaway greenhouses and runaway glaciations: How stable is Earth’s climate? In Frontiers of Climate Modeling. Vol. 9780521791328. Cambridge University Press. 2006. p. 349-366 https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511535857.014