Runoff losses of dissolved and particulate phosphorus (P) may occur when rainfall interacts with manures and biosolids spread on the soil surface. This study compared P levels in runoff losses from soils amended with several P sources, including 10 different biosolids and dairy manure (untreated and treated with Fe or Al salts). Simulated rainfall (71 mm h-1) was applied until 30 min of runoff was collected from soil boxes (100 × 20 × 5 cm) to which the P sources were surfaced applied. Materials were applied to achieve a common plant available nitrogen (PAN) rate of 134 kg PAN ha-1, resulting in total P loading rates from 122 (dairy manure) to 555 (Syracuse N-Viro biosolids) kg P ha-1. Two biosolids produced via biological phosphorus removal (BPR) wastewater treatment resulted in the highest total dissolved phosphorus (13-21.5 mg TDP L-1) and total phosphorus (18-27.5 mg TP L-1) concentrations in runoff, followed by untreated dairy manure that had statistically (p = 0.05) higher TDP (8.5 mg L-1) and TP (10.9 mg L-1) than seven of the eight other biosolids. The TDP and TP in runoff from six biosolids did not differ significantly from unamended control (0.03 mg TDP L-1; 0.95 mg TP L-1). Highest runoff TDP was associated with P sources low in Al and Fe. Amending dairy manure with Al and Fe salts at 1:1 metal-to-P molar ratio reduced runoff TP to control levels. Runoff TDP and TP were not positively correlated to TP application rate unless modified by a weighting factor reflecting the relative solubility of the P source. This suggests site assessment indices should account for the differential solubility of the applied P source to accurately predict the risk of P loss from the wide variety of biosolids materials routinely land applied.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Water Science and Technology
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law