Purpose: In the first-in-human trial of ultrasonic propulsion, subjects passed collections of residual stone fragments repositioned with a C5-2 probe. Here, effectiveness and safety in moving multiple fragments are compared between the C5-2 and a custom (SC-50) probe that produces a longer focal beam and burst duration. Materials and Methods: Effectiveness was quantified by the number of stones expelled from a calyx phantom consisting of a 30-mm deep, water-filled well in a block of tissue mimicking material. Each probe was positioned below the phantom to move stones against gravity. Single propulsion bursts of 50 ms or 3 s duration were applied to three separate targets: 10 fragments of 2 different sizes (1-2 and 2-3 mm) and a single 4 × 7 mm human stone. Safety studies consisted of porcine kidneys exposed to an extreme dose of 10-minute burst duration, including a 7-day survival study and acute studies with surgically implanted stones. Results: Although successful in the clinical trial, the shorter focal beam and maximum 50 ms burst duration of the C5-2 probe moved stones, but did not expel any stones from the phantom's 30-mm deep calyx. The results were similar with the SC-50 probe under the same 50 ms burst duration. Longer (3 s) bursts available with the SC-50 probe expelled all stones at both 4.5 and 9.5 cm "skin-to-stone" depths with lower probe heating compared to the C5-2. No abnormal behavior, urine chemistry, serum chemistry, or histological findings were observed within the kidney or surrounding tissues for the 10 min burst duration used in the animal studies. Conclusions: A longer focal beam and burst duration improved expulsion of a stone and multiple stone fragments from a phantom over a broad range of clinically relevant penetration depths and did not cause kidney injury in animal studies.
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