Safety Assessment of Citrus Plant- and Seed-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics

Christina L. Burnett, Wilma F. Bergfeld, Donald V. Belsito, Ronald A. Hill, Curtis D. Klaassen, Daniel C. Liebler, James G. Marks, Ronald C. Shank, Thomas J. Slaga, Paul W. Snyder, Lillian J. Gill, Bart Heldreth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) assessed the safety of 30 Citrus plant- and seed-derived ingredients, which are most frequently reported to function in cosmetics as fragrances and/or skin conditioning agents. Because final product formulations may contain multiple botanicals, each containing similar constituents of concern, formulators are advised to be aware of these constituents and to avoid reaching levels that may be hazardous to consumers. With Citrus plant- and seed-derived ingredients, the Panel was concerned about the presence of the hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool in cosmetics. Industry should use good manufacturing practices to limit impurities. The Panel reviewed the available data presented and concluded that 18 of these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be non-irritating and non-sensitizing. The data for the remaining 12 ingredients are insufficient to determine safety.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)39S-52S
JournalInternational journal of toxicology
Issue number3 Supplement
StatePublished - Dec 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology


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