Free testosterone concentrations were measured in the saliva of 84 female inmates and 15 female college students. Testosterone differed among inmates convicted of unprovoked violence, defensive violence, theft, drugs, and a set of other crimes. It was highest with unprovoked violence and lowest with defensive violence, where inmates had reacted violently after being physically assaulted. Testosterone was also related to number of prior charges and to Parole Board decisions about length of time to serve before being released on parole. Mean testosterone levels were similar for inmates and college students.
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