Background: We compared the short-term oncologic and functional outcomes of salvage focal cryotherapy (SFC) with those of salvage total cryotherapy (STC) for radiotherapy (RT)-persistent/recurrent prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: We queried the Cryo On-Line Database registry for men who had undergone SFC and STC of the prostate for RT-persistent or recurrent disease. Propensity score weighting was used to match age at treatment, presalvage therapy prostate-specific antigen level, Gleason sum, and presalvage cryotherapy androgen deprivation therapy status. The primary outcome was progression-free survival. Results: A total of 385 men with biopsy-proven persistent or recurrent prostate cancer after primary RT were included in the present study. The median follow-up, age, prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason sum before salvage cryotherapy was 24.4 months (first and third quartile, 9.8 and 60.3), 70 years (first and third quartile, 66 and 74 years), 4 ng/dL (first and third quartile, 2.7 and 5.6 ng/dL), and 7 (first and third quartile, 6 and 8), respectively. After propensity score weighting, the difference in progression-free survival was not statistically significant between the patients who had undergone STC and those who had undergone SFC (79.8% vs. 76.98%; P =.11 on weighted log-rank test). SFC was associated with a lower probability of post-treatment transient urinary retention (5.6% vs. 22.4%; P <.001). No significant differences were found in the incidence of rectal fistula (1.4% vs. 3.8; P =.30), new-onset urinary incontinence within 12 months (9.3% vs. 15.1%; P =.19), or new-onset erectile dysfunction within 12 months (52.6% vs. 59.6%; P =.47) between the SFC and STC groups, respectively. Conclusions: STC resulted in similar 2-year oncologic outcomes compared with SFC in the RT-persistent/recurrent disease population. However, the patients who had undergone SFC had a lower urinary retention rate compared with those who had undergone STC.
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