Objective To assess the complications and outcomes associated with same-session bilateral ureteroscopy in a tertiary referral center, as same-session bilateral ureteroscopy for stone disease has been critiqued for the theoretical risk of injury to both ureters with subsequent risk to renal function. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all cases of bilateral ureteroscopy performed for urolithiasis by a single surgeon at out institution between 2009 and 2014. These were compared to a prospective unilateral ureteroscopy database. Results There were 117 same-session bilateral ureteroscopic procedures performed in 113 patients totaling 234 ureteroscopies. A flexible ureteroscope was used in 228 ureters (97.4%), and 6 (2.6%) were semirigid only. Ureteral dilators were required in 8 (6.8%) cases. Pre-stenting was performed in 23 (19.6%) patients. Short-term complications were observed following 19 (16.2%) procedures, including 11 (9.4%) Clavien I, 4 (3.4%) Clavien II, and 4 (3.4%) Clavien III. Of the 84 (71.8%) patients who completed a 6-week follow-up, there were no long-term complications. Stone-free rates were 91.4% for patients imaged with abdominal x-ray and ultrasound, and 84.2% for those imaged with computed tomography scans. Neither complications nor re-admissions were significantly different in the unilateral group. Median length of follow-up for the entire cohort was 2.8 years (range 0-7 years). Conclusion Bilateral ureteroscopy can be performed safely with short-term complications, consistent with published literature. We found no long-term complications and high stone-free rates. Bilateral ureteroscopy in a single procedure represents a viable standard of care for patients with bilateral stone disease.
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