Scaffolding has been documented as a successful strategy for advancing student learning in a variety of areas. Scaffolds can offer significant cognitive, metacognitive, and procedural support for developing skills and learning (Hannafin, Land, & Oliver, 1999). Various scaffolds have been successfully used to foster complex language skills, such as reading and writing, in both online and face-to-face settings (e.g., Palincsar & Brown, 1984; Lee & Tan, 2010; Li & Lim, 2008). Apart from procedural and cognitive support provided by scaffolds, affective models may also be useful in supporting the writing process (Bandura et al., 2003). One type of affective support is the provision of vicarious learning models, wherein novices can observe expert thinking and strategies. Specifically, vicarious learning models in the form of coping models might aid student writing by helping a learner to identify and avoid errors (Kitsantas, Zimmerman, & Cleary, 2000) as well as increasing learning, self-efficacy, and task persistence (Schunk & Hanson, 1985). Thus, well-designed cognitive scaffolds and vicarious learning models might also be able to support writing within online graduate classes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Social Sciences(all)