Scalable electron correlation methods I. PNO-LMP2 with linear scaling in the molecular size and near-inverse-linear scaling in the number of processors

Hans Joachim Werner, Gerald Knizia, Christine Krause, Max Schwilk, Mark Dornbach

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We propose to construct electron correlation methods that are scalable in both molecule size and aggregated parallel computational power, in the sense that the total elapsed time of a calculation becomes nearly independent of the molecular size when the number of processors grows linearly with the molecular size. This is shown to be possible by exploiting a combination of local approximations and parallel algorithms. The concept is demonstrated with a linear scaling pair natural orbital local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (PNO-LMP2) method. In this method, both the wave function manifold and the integrals are transformed incrementally from projected atomic orbitals (PAOs) first to orbital-specific virtuals (OSVs) and finally to pair natural orbitals (PNOs), which allow for minimum domain sizes and fine-grained accuracy control using very few parameters. A parallel algorithm design is discussed, which is efficient for both small and large molecules, and numbers of processors, although true inverse-linear scaling with compute power is not yet reached in all cases. Initial applications to reactions involving large molecules reveal surprisingly large effects of dispersion energy contributions as well as large intramolecular basis set superposition errors in canonical MP2 calculations. In order to account for the dispersion effects, the usual selection of PNOs on the basis of natural occupation numbers turns out to be insufficient, and a new energy-based criterion is proposed. If explicitly correlated (F12) terms are included, fast convergence to the MP2 complete basis set (CBS) limit is achieved. For the studied reactions, the PNO-LMP2-F12 results deviate from the canonical MP2/CBS and MP2-F12 values by <1 kJ mol-1, using triple-Χ (VTZ-F12) basis sets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)484-507
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 10 2015


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

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