Scaling of spiking and humping in keyhole welding

P. S. Wei, K. C. Chuang, Tarasankar Debroy, J. S. Ku

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Spiking, rippling and humping seriously reduce the strength of welds. The effects of beam focusing, volatile alloying element concentration and welding velocity on spiking, coarse rippling and humping in keyhole mode electron-beam welding are examined through scale analysis. Although these defects have been studied in the past, the mechanisms for their formation are not fully understood. This work relates the average amplitudes of spikes to fusion zone depth for the welding of Al 6061, SS 304 and carbon steel, and Al 5083. The scale analysis introduces welding and melting efficiencies and an appropriate power distribution to account for the focusing effects, and the energy which is reflected and escapes through the keyhole opening to the surroundings. The frequency of humping and spiking can also be predicted from the scale analysis. The analysis also reveals the interrelation between coarse rippling and humping. The data and the mechanistic findings reported in this study are useful for understanding and preventing spiking and humping during keyhole mode electron and laser beam welding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number245501
JournalJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Volume44
Issue number24
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 22 2011

Fingerprint

spiking
welding
Electron beam welding
Welding
scaling
Laser beam welding
electron beam welding
Alloying elements
Laser modes
Carbon steel
carbon steels
Welds
Melting
Fusion reactions
spikes
alloying
escape
Defects
fusion
melting

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Cite this

Wei, P. S. ; Chuang, K. C. ; Debroy, Tarasankar ; Ku, J. S. / Scaling of spiking and humping in keyhole welding. In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 2011 ; Vol. 44, No. 24.
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Scaling of spiking and humping in keyhole welding. / Wei, P. S.; Chuang, K. C.; Debroy, Tarasankar; Ku, J. S.

In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 44, No. 24, 245501, 22.06.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Scaling of spiking and humping in keyhole welding

AU - Wei, P. S.

AU - Chuang, K. C.

AU - Debroy, Tarasankar

AU - Ku, J. S.

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