School consultation: A review of research on issues unique to the school environment

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Abstract

Objective: To provide clinicians with current information to assist in their consultations to schools on 4 major topics that are unique to the school environment and of serious concern to educators: absenteeism, disciplinary referrals, retention (nonpromotion), and dropping out. Method: Computer literature searches and the major journals of the various school disciplines were used to identify empirically based articles with sound methodology. Information on each of the 4 issues is presented as general characteristics, characteristics of psychopathology, prevention and treatment, and implications for consultation. Results: Findings are largely general, with little specific information on level of intelligence, learning disorders, psychopathology, or family stressors. Students under each topic have varied presentations. However, many pupils with absenteeism, disciplinary referrals, or retention appear to be characterized by chronic and serious academic and/or behavior problems, all of which can predate dropping out. Conclusions: Considerable research is still needed on all 4 school issues, especially psychopathology. Nevertheless, consultants can reasonably first help schools to identify students at risk for the 4 outcomes, followed by appropriate screening/evaluation to indicate more clearly their true intervention needs. The ongoing process can further educate school staff about psychiatric disorders in their most problematic students.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)402-413
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume39
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2000

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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