Search for the sidereal and solar diurnal modulations in the total MACRO muon data set

M. Ambrosio, R. Antolini, A. Baldini, G. C. Barbarino, B. C. Barish, G. Battistoni, Y. Becherini, R. Bellotti, C. Bemporad, P. Bernardini, H. Bilokon, C. Bower, M. Brigida, S. Bussino, F. Cafagna, M. Calicchio, D. Campana, M. Carboni, R. Caruso, S. CecchiniF. Cei, V. Chiarella, T. Chiarusi, B. C. Choudhary, S. Coutu, M. Cozzi, G. De Cataldo, H. Dekhissi, C. De Marzo, I. De Mitri, J. Derkaoui, M. De Vincenzi, A. Di Credico, O. Erriquez, C. Favuzzi, C. Forti, P. Fusco, G. Giacomelli, G. Giannini, N. Giglietto, M. Giorgini, M. Grassi, A. Grillo, C. Gustavino, A. Habig, K. Hanson, R. Heinz, E. Katsavounidis, I. Katsavounidis, E. Kearns, H. Kim, S. Kyriazopoulou, E. Lamanna, C. Lane, D. S. Levin, P. Lipari, N. P. Longley, M. J. Longo, F. Loparco, F. Maaroufi, G. Mancarella, G. Mandrioli, A. Margiotta, A. Marini, D. Martello, A. Marzari-Chiesa, M. N. Mazziotta, D. G. Michael, L. Miller, P. Monacelli, T. Montaruli, M. Monteno, S. Mufson, J. Musser, D. Nicolò, R. Nolty, C. Orth, G. Osteria, O. Palamara, L. Patrizii, R. Pazzi, C. W. Peck, L. Perrone, S. Petrera, V. Popa, A. Rainò, J. Reynoldson, F. Ronga, C. Satriano, E. Scapparone, K. Scholberg, P. Serra, M. Sioli, G. Sirri, M. Sitta, P. Spinelli, M. Spinetti, M. Spurio, R. Steinberg, J. L. Stone, L. R. Sulak, A. Surdo, G. Tarlè, V. Togo, M. Vakili, C. W. Walter, R. Webb

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62 Scopus citations


We have analyzed 44.3M single muons collected by MACRO from 1991 through 2000 in 2145 live days of operation. We have searched for the solar diurnal, apparent sidereal, and pseudosidereal modulation of the underground muon rate by computing hourly deviations of the muon rate from 6 month averages. We find evidence for statistically significant modulations with the solar diurnal and the sidereal periods. The amplitudes of these modulations are (Formula presented) and are at the limit of the detector statistics. The pseudosidereal modulation is not statistically significant. The solar diurnal modulation is due to the daily atmospheric temperature variations at 20 km, the altitude of primary cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere; MACRO is the deepest experiment to report this result. The sidereal modulation is in addition to the expected Compton-Getting modulation due to solar system motion relative to the local standard of rest; it represents motion of the solar system with respect to the galactic cosmic rays toward the galactic plane.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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