We investigate the way structural change (measured in terms of the composition of production) affects the female employment to population ratios in thirty-nine least developed countries. We use random and fixed effects estimation techniques on a panel data from 1991 to 2010. Our findings highlight the importance of structural change on female access to employment. Specifically, we find that, while positive changes in the agriculture sector output tend to significantly favor female absolute and relative employment, those in the services as well as the manufacturing and non-manufacturing industry sectors tend to have negative effects where significant. In addition to sectoral effects, the increased access to education, industrialization, and the decreased reproduction responsibilities are important in enhancing female production responsibilities. Nonetheless, the role of infrastructure development in lessening the unpaid care burden of women, and consequently increasing their employment opportunities in both absolute and relative terms, cannot be underestimated.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Business, Management and Accounting(all)
- Economics and Econometrics