Self-biased magnetoelectric (ME) effect in lead-free multi-phase laminates opens new opportunities for improving the performance of AC/DC magnetic field sensors and low-power magnetic memories. The self-biased ME response described as remnant ME coefficient at zero-magnetic DC bias was observed in laminate composites having combinatory presence of magnetic field gradient and bending strain. The magnetic gradient was induced by incorporating ferromagnetic materials with varying susceptibility that results in bias magnetic field (H bias). The bending strain was induced by designing bimorph laminate structure with proper electrical connections. In both off-resonance and resonance conditions, the ME hysteresis was found to be present with a different shape controlled by the magnitude of coupling between magnetic interaction and bending strain.
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