Sensing defects during directed-energy additive manufacturing of metal parts using optical emissions spectroscopy

A. R. Nassar, T. J. Spurgeon, E. W. Reutzel

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

29 Scopus citations

Abstract

Critical components produced via additive manufacturing must be free of unwanted defects. While defects may be detectable after deposition using nondestructive testing techniques, detecting defects during the deposition process offers many benefits: it may enable users to interrupt deposition to repair the part, or to abort deposition to minimize further loss of time and material. Here, we present a method for real-time defect detection during directed-energy additive manufacturing of metals. The method utilized optical emission spectroscopy and a custom-built data acquisition and control infrastructure. It was implemented on a LENS MR-7 machine, and employed during manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V components in which defects were intentionally introduced. Emission spectra were correlated with defect locations, determined via computed tomography and metallographic cross-sectioning. Preliminary results indicated that defect formation was correlated with atomic titanium (Ti I) and Vanadium (V I) emissions and that measurement of the line-to-continuum ratio for line emissions could be used for defect detection. Based on these findings, sensing strategies for defect detection and, potentially, in-situ-defect repair may be realizable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages278-287
Number of pages10
StatePublished - 2014
Event25th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium � An Additive Manufacturing Conference, SFF 2014 - Austin, United States
Duration: Aug 4 2014Aug 6 2014

Conference

Conference25th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium � An Additive Manufacturing Conference, SFF 2014
CountryUnited States
CityAustin
Period8/4/148/6/14

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

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