White mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) of leguminous crops in New York is generally managed with preventive applications of fungicides. However, no research has been conducted during the last decade to assess the sensitivity of the S. sclerotiorum population to fungicides or compare their performance under field conditions. The sensitivity of S. sclerotiorum to boscalid, fluazinam, and thiophanate-methyl was assessed in 151 isolates from 15 fields across New York using an agar dilution method with discriminatory concentrations. In addition, the effective concentration at which mycelial growth is reduced by 50% (EC50) was estimated for one representative isolate from each field. The efficacy of commercial formulations of each fungicide on white mold incidence in plants and pods was also tested in two field trials (2015 and 2016). The EC50 values ranged from 0.068 to 0.219, 0.001 to 0.002, and 1.23 to 2.15 µg/ml for boscalid, fluazinam, and thiophanate-methyl, respectively. Evidence of resistance was not found using the discriminatory concentration tests. The mycelial growth inhibition relative to the control ranged from 56 to 83%, 66 to 84%, and 53 to 83% at discriminatory concentrations of boscalid (5 µg a.i./ml), fluazinam (0.05 µg a.i./ml), and thiophanate-methyl (5 µg a.i./ml), respectively. Fourteen isolates with mycelial growth inhibition lower than 60% at 5 µg/ml of thiophanate-methyl, did not exhibit point mutations within a partial sequence of the β-tubulin gene. In the field trials, fungicides effectively reduced white mold incidence on plants by 75% (2015) and 93% (2016) and on pods by 81% (2015) and 87% (2016), both relative to the nontreated plots. However, fungicide applications led to significant increases in pod yield, relative to the nontreated plots, only in 2015 when the incidence of white mold on plants and pods were higher (85 and 49.2%) than in 2016 (31.3 and 10.3%). Although fungicide resistance was not detected, and thus control failures reported by New York snap bean growers may be due to other factors, further monitoring of sensitivity within the S. sclerotiorum population is encouraged as well as the use of rational systems to base their judicious and economic use.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Plant Science