Sentencing, Trends, and Disparities: Crime

Mindy S. Bradley, Jeffery T. Ulmer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Many scholars have examined sentencing disparities in efforts to explain why and how these differences occur and untangle the legal and extralegal influences on punishment. This article provides an overview of the common criminological perspectives found in the sentencing literature. We then summarize trends in sentencing research over the last three decades, reviewing much of the empirical research on disparities in the areas of race and ethnicity, gender, and mode of conviction. We conclude with a discussion of some of the gaps and unexplored/underexplored areas in the literature, making suggestions for future research in this field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9780080970875
ISBN (Print)9780080970868
StatePublished - Mar 26 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Sciences(all)


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