Sex differences in cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

Sowmya Krishnan, David A. Fields, Kenneth C. Copeland, Piers R. Blackett, Michael P. Anderson, Andrew Gardner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Cardiovascular disease is seen at a younger age and at a higher prevalence in patients with type 1 diabetes than in the general population. It is well described that women with type 1 diabetes have a higher relative risk of cardiovascular disease than men with type 1 diabetes, unlike that seen in the general population. The pathophysiology behind this is unknown. Objective: We performed a cross-sectional study to examine sex differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes between ages 13 and 20 years, compared with children of a similar age without type 1 diabetes. Methods: All patients underwent a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan to measure body composition and a pulse wave test measure of arterial elasticity. Fasting serum lipid levels, apolipoprotein B, and apolipoprotein C-III levels were measured in each patient. Twenty-nine children with type 1 diabetes (10 girls, 19 boys) and 37 healthy children (18 girls, 19 boys) participated. Results: Although no sex differences for body mass index (P = 0.91) and glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.69) were seen, girls with type 1 diabetes had a significantly higher percent trunk fat compared with boys (P = 0.004). No sex differences were found (P > 0.05) for percent trunk fat in adolescents without diabetes. There was no sex difference among any other cardiovascular risk factors in either children with or without diabetes. Conclusions: Female adolescents with type 1 diabetes have more centrally distributed fat, which may contribute to their relatively higher cardiovascular disease risk. Attenuation of the central distribution of fat through exercise and dietary modifications may help ameliorate their subsequent cardiovascular disease burden.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-258
Number of pages8
JournalGender Medicine
Volume9
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2012

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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Sex Characteristics
chronic illness
Cardiovascular Diseases
adolescent
Disease
Fats
Apolipoprotein C-III
Diet Therapy
Elasticity
Glycosylated Hemoglobin A
Apolipoproteins B
Body Composition
Population
female adolescent
Fasting
Body Mass Index
cross-sectional study
Cross-Sectional Studies
X-Rays

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Gender Studies

Cite this

Krishnan, S., Fields, D. A., Copeland, K. C., Blackett, P. R., Anderson, M. P., & Gardner, A. (2012). Sex differences in cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Gender Medicine, 9(4), 251-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genm.2012.05.003
Krishnan, Sowmya ; Fields, David A. ; Copeland, Kenneth C. ; Blackett, Piers R. ; Anderson, Michael P. ; Gardner, Andrew. / Sex differences in cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. In: Gender Medicine. 2012 ; Vol. 9, No. 4. pp. 251-258.
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Krishnan, S, Fields, DA, Copeland, KC, Blackett, PR, Anderson, MP & Gardner, A 2012, 'Sex differences in cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents with type 1 diabetes', Gender Medicine, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 251-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genm.2012.05.003

Sex differences in cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. / Krishnan, Sowmya; Fields, David A.; Copeland, Kenneth C.; Blackett, Piers R.; Anderson, Michael P.; Gardner, Andrew.

In: Gender Medicine, Vol. 9, No. 4, 01.08.2012, p. 251-258.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - Background: Cardiovascular disease is seen at a younger age and at a higher prevalence in patients with type 1 diabetes than in the general population. It is well described that women with type 1 diabetes have a higher relative risk of cardiovascular disease than men with type 1 diabetes, unlike that seen in the general population. The pathophysiology behind this is unknown. Objective: We performed a cross-sectional study to examine sex differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes between ages 13 and 20 years, compared with children of a similar age without type 1 diabetes. Methods: All patients underwent a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan to measure body composition and a pulse wave test measure of arterial elasticity. Fasting serum lipid levels, apolipoprotein B, and apolipoprotein C-III levels were measured in each patient. Twenty-nine children with type 1 diabetes (10 girls, 19 boys) and 37 healthy children (18 girls, 19 boys) participated. Results: Although no sex differences for body mass index (P = 0.91) and glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.69) were seen, girls with type 1 diabetes had a significantly higher percent trunk fat compared with boys (P = 0.004). No sex differences were found (P > 0.05) for percent trunk fat in adolescents without diabetes. There was no sex difference among any other cardiovascular risk factors in either children with or without diabetes. Conclusions: Female adolescents with type 1 diabetes have more centrally distributed fat, which may contribute to their relatively higher cardiovascular disease risk. Attenuation of the central distribution of fat through exercise and dietary modifications may help ameliorate their subsequent cardiovascular disease burden.

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