Sexual dimorphism in the dentition and skeleton of the four extant species of snub‐nosed langurs, Rhinopithecus (R.) bieti, R. (R.) brelichi, R. (R.) roxellana and R. (Presbytiscus) avunculus, was studied. The species shared a similar general pattern of sexual dimorphism, but were found to differ in respects that appear to reflect the influence of disparate socioecological and environmental factors. All the species showed marked canine dimorphism, but the very high degree of canine dimorphism in R. bieti appeared to be due to the intensity of intermale competition for mates during a temporally restricted breeding season, and possibly also to the intensity of competition between males for other resources during other times of the year. Sexual dimorphism in the postcranial skeleton of Rhinopithecus species was also most pronounced in R. bieti and may be related to the relatively higher frequency of terrestrial locomotion in males of the species. © 1995 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
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