Shared genetic influences do not explain the association between parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring internalizing problems: Results from a Children-of-Twins study

L. J. Hannigan, F. V. Rijsdijk, J. M. Ganiban, D. Reiss, E. L. Spotts, J. M. Neiderhiser, P. Lichtenstein, T. A. McAdams, T. C. Eley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background Associations between parenting and child outcomes are often interpreted as reflecting causal, social influences. However, such associations may be confounded by genes common to children and their biological parents. To the extent that these shared genes influence behaviours in both generations, a passive genetic mechanism may explain links between them. Here we aim to quantify the relative importance of passive genetic v. social mechanisms in the intergenerational association between parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring internalizing problems in adolescence. Methods We used a Children-of-Twins (CoT) design with data from the parent-based Twin and Offspring Study of Sweden (TOSS) sample [909 adult twin pairs and their offspring; offspring mean age 15.75 (2.42) years], and the child-based Swedish Twin Study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) sample [1120 adolescent twin pairs; mean age 13.67 (0.47) years]. A composite of parent-report measures (closeness, conflict, disagreements, expressions of affection) indexed parent-offspring relationship quality in TOSS, and offspring self-reported internalizing symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in both samples. Results A social transmission mechanism explained the intergenerational association [r = 0.21 (0.16-0.25)] in our best-fitting model. A passive genetic transmission pathway was not found to be significant, indicating that parental genetic influences on parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring genetic influences on their internalizing problems were non-overlapping. Conclusion These results indicate that this intergenerational association is a product of social interactions between children and parents, within which bidirectional effects are highly plausible. Results from genetically informative studies of parenting-related effects should be used to help refine early parenting interventions aimed at reducing risk for psychopathology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)592-603
Number of pages12
JournalPsychological medicine
Volume48
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018

Fingerprint

Twin Studies
Parenting
Sweden
Parents
Adolescent Development
Child Behavior
Interpersonal Relations
Child Development
Checklist
Psychopathology
Genes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Hannigan, L. J. ; Rijsdijk, F. V. ; Ganiban, J. M. ; Reiss, D. ; Spotts, E. L. ; Neiderhiser, J. M. ; Lichtenstein, P. ; McAdams, T. A. ; Eley, T. C. / Shared genetic influences do not explain the association between parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring internalizing problems : Results from a Children-of-Twins study. In: Psychological medicine. 2018 ; Vol. 48, No. 4. pp. 592-603.
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abstract = "Background Associations between parenting and child outcomes are often interpreted as reflecting causal, social influences. However, such associations may be confounded by genes common to children and their biological parents. To the extent that these shared genes influence behaviours in both generations, a passive genetic mechanism may explain links between them. Here we aim to quantify the relative importance of passive genetic v. social mechanisms in the intergenerational association between parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring internalizing problems in adolescence. Methods We used a Children-of-Twins (CoT) design with data from the parent-based Twin and Offspring Study of Sweden (TOSS) sample [909 adult twin pairs and their offspring; offspring mean age 15.75 (2.42) years], and the child-based Swedish Twin Study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) sample [1120 adolescent twin pairs; mean age 13.67 (0.47) years]. A composite of parent-report measures (closeness, conflict, disagreements, expressions of affection) indexed parent-offspring relationship quality in TOSS, and offspring self-reported internalizing symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in both samples. Results A social transmission mechanism explained the intergenerational association [r = 0.21 (0.16-0.25)] in our best-fitting model. A passive genetic transmission pathway was not found to be significant, indicating that parental genetic influences on parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring genetic influences on their internalizing problems were non-overlapping. Conclusion These results indicate that this intergenerational association is a product of social interactions between children and parents, within which bidirectional effects are highly plausible. Results from genetically informative studies of parenting-related effects should be used to help refine early parenting interventions aimed at reducing risk for psychopathology.",
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Shared genetic influences do not explain the association between parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring internalizing problems : Results from a Children-of-Twins study. / Hannigan, L. J.; Rijsdijk, F. V.; Ganiban, J. M.; Reiss, D.; Spotts, E. L.; Neiderhiser, J. M.; Lichtenstein, P.; McAdams, T. A.; Eley, T. C.

In: Psychological medicine, Vol. 48, No. 4, 01.03.2018, p. 592-603.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Shared genetic influences do not explain the association between parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring internalizing problems

T2 - Results from a Children-of-Twins study

AU - Hannigan, L. J.

AU - Rijsdijk, F. V.

AU - Ganiban, J. M.

AU - Reiss, D.

AU - Spotts, E. L.

AU - Neiderhiser, J. M.

AU - Lichtenstein, P.

AU - McAdams, T. A.

AU - Eley, T. C.

PY - 2018/3/1

Y1 - 2018/3/1

N2 - Background Associations between parenting and child outcomes are often interpreted as reflecting causal, social influences. However, such associations may be confounded by genes common to children and their biological parents. To the extent that these shared genes influence behaviours in both generations, a passive genetic mechanism may explain links between them. Here we aim to quantify the relative importance of passive genetic v. social mechanisms in the intergenerational association between parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring internalizing problems in adolescence. Methods We used a Children-of-Twins (CoT) design with data from the parent-based Twin and Offspring Study of Sweden (TOSS) sample [909 adult twin pairs and their offspring; offspring mean age 15.75 (2.42) years], and the child-based Swedish Twin Study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) sample [1120 adolescent twin pairs; mean age 13.67 (0.47) years]. A composite of parent-report measures (closeness, conflict, disagreements, expressions of affection) indexed parent-offspring relationship quality in TOSS, and offspring self-reported internalizing symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in both samples. Results A social transmission mechanism explained the intergenerational association [r = 0.21 (0.16-0.25)] in our best-fitting model. A passive genetic transmission pathway was not found to be significant, indicating that parental genetic influences on parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring genetic influences on their internalizing problems were non-overlapping. Conclusion These results indicate that this intergenerational association is a product of social interactions between children and parents, within which bidirectional effects are highly plausible. Results from genetically informative studies of parenting-related effects should be used to help refine early parenting interventions aimed at reducing risk for psychopathology.

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