Shear-induced crystallization of polyamide 11

Katalee Jariyavidyanont, Salvatore Mallardo, Pierfrancesco Cerruti, Maria Laura Di Lorenzo, Regine Boldt, Alicyn M. Rhoades, René Androsch

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Abstract

Shear-induced formation of crystal nuclei in polyamide 11 (PA 11) was studied using a conventional parallel-plate rheometer. Crystallization of PA 11 after shearing the melt at different rates for 60 s was followed by the evolution of the complex viscosity. The sheared samples showed in an optical microscope a gradient structure along the radius, due to the increasing shear rate from the center to the edge. The critical shear rate for shear-induced formation of nuclei was identified at the position where a distinct change of the semicrystalline superstructure is observed, being at around 1 to 2 s−1. Below this threshold, a space-filled spherulitic superstructure developed as in quiescent-melt crystallization. Above this value, after shearing at rates between 1 and 5 s−1, an increased number of point-like nuclei was detected, connected with formation of randomly oriented crystals. Shearing the melt at even higher rates led to a further increase of the nuclei number and growth of crystals oriented such that the chain axis is in parallel to the direction of flow. In addition, optical microscopy confirmed formation of long fibrillar structures after shearing at such condition. The critical specific work of flow of PA 11 was calculated to allow a comparison with that of polyamide 66 (PA 66). This comparison showed that in the case of PA 11 more work for shear-induced formation of nuclei is needed than in the case of PA 66, discussed in terms of the chemical structure of the repeat unit in the chains. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)231-240
Number of pages10
JournalRheologica Acta
Volume60
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics

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