Objectives: A variety of clinical and anatomic factors influence the choice between infrainguinal bypass surgery (BPG) and percutaneous endovascular procedures (PTA) to treat lower extremity vascular disease. The decision, in part, is dependant on periprocedural morbidity. The goal of this study was to document the contemporary morbidity and mortality of infrainguinal BPG, utilizing the previously validated National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. Methods: Data from the private sector NSQIP, a prospectively validated systematic-sample database, using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for all infrainguinal BPG performed between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006, were analyzed. Study endpoints included 30-day death and NSQIP-defined major complications, including graft failure, differentiated between systemic vs operative-site related complications. Potentially associated clinical variables were assessed by univariate methods to create the multivariate models of factors associated with study endpoints. Results: There were 2404 infrainguinal BPG (infrapopliteal distal anastomosis 42%, prosthetic 29%) performed in the study interval with patient variables: age 67 ± 12, male 66%, diabetes 44%, limb salvage indications 48%. The 30-day composite mortality/major morbidity was 19.5%. The overall mortality was 2.7% and correlated with (P value, odds ratio [OR]): patient age (<.001, 1.056), low body weight (.007, 0.988), significant preoperative dyspnea (.03, 1.97), dialysis (.003, 5.26), history transient ischemic attack (.03, 2.43), and bleeding disorder (.02, 2.01). Major complications occurred in 18.7% patients, including 7.4% graft thromboses, and 9.4% wound infections. Major systemic complications occurred in 5.9% and correlated with: age (.001, 1.03), history myocardial infarction (.02, 2.37), dialysis (<.001, 2.52), impaired sensorium (.005, 2.93), and general (vs regional) anesthesia (.04, 1.9). Major operative site-related complications occurred in 15.1% and correlated with: history chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (.04, 1.40), limb salvage indication (<.001, 1.71), impaired sensorium (.01, 2.26), non-independent preoperative functional status (.03, 1.37), and operative time (<.001, 1.002). The combination of dialysis and age >80 was identified as the most powerful high-risk composite for death (13.3-fold) and major complications (2.2-fold). Conclusion: Infrainguinal BPG is accompanied by significant major morbidity and mortality in contemporary practice. These results reinforce the precept that stringent indications for BPG should be maintained, when considering the method of lower extremity revascularization.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine