Purpose: We evaluate the usefulness of pretreatment 111Indium capromab pendetide (ProstaScint™) planar imaging (immunoscintigraphy) plus single photon emission tomography co-registration with computerized tomography scans to detect occult metastatic disease and predict for biochemical failure, in a cohort of patients with a clinical diagnosis of localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate referred for primary radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Patients were followed after radiotherapy for evidence of biochemical failure using 2 criteria of prostate specific antigen clinical nadir +2 ng/ml and American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus definitions. Median followup was 58.8 months (mean 64.8). Clinical risk factors defined 3 risk groups of high (51), intermediate (72) and low (116). Results: Overall biochemical failure was 18.3% vs 11.8% by the 2-BFC at 8-year actuarial analysis with 58.8 months median followup. By the CN +2 definition the control date for the cohort is 34.8 months. Pretreatment SPECT/CT suggested prostate cancer metastasis (22), seminal vesicle extension (20) and organ confined disease (197). Biochemical failure in patients having extra-periprostatic metastatic prostate cancer, seminal vesicle extension and organ confined disease uptake on SPECT/CT was 43.2%, 16.0% vs 14.7% (p = 0.0006); and 33.3%, 15.0% vs 8.7% (p = 0.0017) by the 2-BFC, respectively. Cox multiple regression analysis demonstrated that a finding of extra-periprostatic metastatic prostate on SPECT/CT significantly predicted a 4.2-fold greater risk (p = 0.0012) and a 4.5-fold greater risk (p = 0.0011) of failure by the 2-BFC than organ confined disease adjusting for treatment and risk group. Conclusions: Unconfirmed findings of extra-periprostatic metastatic prostate cancer on SPECT/CT immunoscintigraphy independently and significantly predicted an increased risk of biochemical failure in patients presenting for radiotherapy with a clinical diagnosis of localized prostate cancer.
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