Local ozone concentration and visible foliar injury were measured over the 1994 growing season on open-grown black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) trees of varying size (age) within forest stands and adjacent openings at a site in north-central Pennsylvania. Relationships were determined between visible ozone injury and ozone exposure, as well as calculated between injury and ozone uptake expressed as the product of stomatal conductance and ozone concentration. In addition, simultaneous measurements of visible symptoms and leaf gas exchange were also conducted to determine the con elation between visible and physiological injury and ozone exposure. By September, the amount of leaf area affected by visible foliar ozone injury was greatest for seedlings (46%), followed by canopy trees (20%) and saplings (15%). A large amount of variability in foliar ozone symptom expression was observed among trees within a size class. Sum40 and Sum60 (ozone concentration > 40 and > 60 nl liter-1) cumulative exposure statistics were the most meaningful indices for interpretation of folial injury response. Seedlings were apparently more sensitive to ozone injury than larger trees because their higher rates of stomatal conductance resulted in higher rates of ozone uptake. Seedlings also had higher rates of early leaf abscission than larger trees with an average of nearly 30% of the leaves on a shoot abscised by 1 September compared to approximately 5% for larger trees. However, per unit ozone uptake into the leaf, larger trees exhibited larger amounts of foliar injury. The amount of visible foliar injury was negatively correlated (r2 = 0.82) with net photosynthetic rates, bur was not related to stomatal conductance. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance thus became uncoupled at high levels of visible foliar injury.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis