Social Learning and Social Control in the Off- and Online Pathways to Hate Crime and Terrorist Violence

Colleen E. Mills, Joshua D. Freilich, Steven M. Chermak, Thomas J. Holt, Gary LaFree

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Although recent years have seen a great increase in the study of hate crime and terrorism, there is limited research to date that explores connections between hate crime and terrorism. This study uses a qualitative case-study method to explore the competing criminological theories of social learning and social control to investigate their utility in explaining radicalization among hate and terrorist violent extremists. Our analysis demonstrates important similarities and differences across ideology and offender types in their career pathways. We find support for the use of an integrated social control–social learning model to explain radicalization and the commission of extremist violence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalStudies in Conflict and Terrorism
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Safety Research
  • Political Science and International Relations

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