Purpose: Somatic activating variants in the PI3K-AKT pathway cause vascular malformations with and without overgrowth. We previously reported an individual with capillary and lymphatic malformation harboring a pathogenic somatic variant in PIK3R1, which encodes three PI3K complex regulatory subunits. Here, we investigate PIK3R1 in a large cohort with vascular anomalies and identify an additional 16 individuals with somatic mosaic variants in PIK3R1. Methods: Affected tissue from individuals with vascular lesions and overgrowth recruited from a multisite collaborative network was studied. Next-generation sequencing targeting coding regions of cell-signaling and cancer-associated genes was performed followed by assessment of variant pathogenicity. Results: The phenotypic and variant spectrum associated with somatic variation in PIK3R1 is reported herein. Variants occurred in the inter-SH2 or N-terminal SH2 domains of all three PIK3R1 protein products. Phenotypic features overlapped those of the PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS). These overlapping features included mixed vascular malformations, sandal toe gap deformity with macrodactyly, lymphatic malformations, venous ectasias, and overgrowth of soft tissue or bone. Conclusion: Somatic PIK3R1 variants sharing attributes with cancer-associated variants cause complex vascular malformations and overgrowth. The PIK3R1-associated phenotypic spectrum overlaps with PROS. These data extend understanding of the diverse phenotypic spectrum attributable to genetic variation in the PI3K-AKT pathway.
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