Whereas a number of studies have examined the effects of soy isoflavones and tocopherols on colonic inflammation, few have examined soy protein. We determined the radical scavenging and cytoprotective effects of soy protein concentrate (SPC) in vitro and its anti-inflammatory effects in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice. Cotreatment with SPC protected Caco-2 human colon cells from H2O2-induced cell death and mitigated intracellular oxidative stress. Treatment of differentiated Caco-2 cells with SPC blunted DSS-induced increases in monolayer permeability. Pepsin/pancreatin-digested SPC had reduced radical scavenging activity, but retained the monolayer protective effects of SPC. In vivo, 1.5% DSS caused body weight loss, colon shortening, and splenomegaly in CF-1 mice. Co-treatment with 12% SPC mitigated DSS-induced body weight loss and splenomegaly. DSS increased colonic interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression. The levels of these markers were significantly lower in mice co-treated with SPC. SPC prevented DSS-mediated reductions in colonic glucagon-like peptide 2 levels, suggesting that SPC can prevent loss of gut barrier function, but no significant effect on claudin 1 and occludin mRNA levels of was observed. SPC-treated mice had lower colonic mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing protein 3 (NLRP3), and lower caspase-1 enzyme activity than DSS-treated mice. In summary, SPC exerted antioxidant and cytoprotective effects in vitro and moderated the severity of DSS-induced inflammation and loss of gut barrier function in vivo. These effects appear to be mediated in part through reduced NLRP3 expression and caspase 1 activity.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Molecular Biology
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Clinical Biochemistry