Spatially resolved steady-state negative capacitance

Ajay K. Yadav, Kayla X. Nguyen, Zijian Hong, Pablo García-Fernández, Pablo Aguado-Puente, Christopher T. Nelson, Sujit Das, Bhagawati Prasad, Daewoong Kwon, Suraj Cheema, Asif I. Khan, Chenming Hu, Jorge Íñiguez, Javier Junquera, Long Qing Chen, David A. Muller, Ramamoorthy Ramesh, Sayeef Salahuddin

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Negative capacitance is a newly discovered state of ferroelectric materials that holds promise for electronics applications by exploiting a region of thermodynamic space that is normally not accessible 1–14 . Although existing reports of negative capacitance substantiate the importance of this phenomenon, they have focused on its macroscale manifestation. These manifestations demonstrate possible uses of steady-state negative capacitance—for example, enhancing the capacitance of a ferroelectric–dielectric heterostructure 4,7,14 or improving the subthreshold swing of a transistor 8–12 . Yet they constitute only indirect measurements of the local state of negative capacitance in which the ferroelectric resides. Spatial mapping of this phenomenon would help its understanding at a microscopic scale and also help to achieve optimal design of devices with potential technological applications. Here we demonstrate a direct measurement of steady-state negative capacitance in a ferroelectric–dielectric heterostructure. We use electron microscopy complemented by phase-field and first-principles-based (second-principles) simulations in SrTiO 3 /PbTiO 3 superlattices to directly determine, with atomic resolution, the local regions in the ferroelectric material where a state of negative capacitance is stabilized. Simultaneous vector mapping of atomic displacements (related to a complex pattern in the polarization field), in conjunction with reconstruction of the local electric field, identify the negative capacitance regions as those with higher energy density and larger polarizability: the domain walls where the polarization is suppressed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)468-471
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume565
Issue number7740
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 24 2019

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Equipment Design
Thermodynamics
Electron Microscopy

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Cite this

Yadav, A. K., Nguyen, K. X., Hong, Z., García-Fernández, P., Aguado-Puente, P., Nelson, C. T., ... Salahuddin, S. (2019). Spatially resolved steady-state negative capacitance. Nature, 565(7740), 468-471. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0855-y
Yadav, Ajay K. ; Nguyen, Kayla X. ; Hong, Zijian ; García-Fernández, Pablo ; Aguado-Puente, Pablo ; Nelson, Christopher T. ; Das, Sujit ; Prasad, Bhagawati ; Kwon, Daewoong ; Cheema, Suraj ; Khan, Asif I. ; Hu, Chenming ; Íñiguez, Jorge ; Junquera, Javier ; Chen, Long Qing ; Muller, David A. ; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy ; Salahuddin, Sayeef. / Spatially resolved steady-state negative capacitance. In: Nature. 2019 ; Vol. 565, No. 7740. pp. 468-471.
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abstract = "Negative capacitance is a newly discovered state of ferroelectric materials that holds promise for electronics applications by exploiting a region of thermodynamic space that is normally not accessible 1–14 . Although existing reports of negative capacitance substantiate the importance of this phenomenon, they have focused on its macroscale manifestation. These manifestations demonstrate possible uses of steady-state negative capacitance—for example, enhancing the capacitance of a ferroelectric–dielectric heterostructure 4,7,14 or improving the subthreshold swing of a transistor 8–12 . Yet they constitute only indirect measurements of the local state of negative capacitance in which the ferroelectric resides. Spatial mapping of this phenomenon would help its understanding at a microscopic scale and also help to achieve optimal design of devices with potential technological applications. Here we demonstrate a direct measurement of steady-state negative capacitance in a ferroelectric–dielectric heterostructure. We use electron microscopy complemented by phase-field and first-principles-based (second-principles) simulations in SrTiO 3 /PbTiO 3 superlattices to directly determine, with atomic resolution, the local regions in the ferroelectric material where a state of negative capacitance is stabilized. Simultaneous vector mapping of atomic displacements (related to a complex pattern in the polarization field), in conjunction with reconstruction of the local electric field, identify the negative capacitance regions as those with higher energy density and larger polarizability: the domain walls where the polarization is suppressed.",
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Yadav, AK, Nguyen, KX, Hong, Z, García-Fernández, P, Aguado-Puente, P, Nelson, CT, Das, S, Prasad, B, Kwon, D, Cheema, S, Khan, AI, Hu, C, Íñiguez, J, Junquera, J, Chen, LQ, Muller, DA, Ramesh, R & Salahuddin, S 2019, 'Spatially resolved steady-state negative capacitance', Nature, vol. 565, no. 7740, pp. 468-471. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0855-y

Spatially resolved steady-state negative capacitance. / Yadav, Ajay K.; Nguyen, Kayla X.; Hong, Zijian; García-Fernández, Pablo; Aguado-Puente, Pablo; Nelson, Christopher T.; Das, Sujit; Prasad, Bhagawati; Kwon, Daewoong; Cheema, Suraj; Khan, Asif I.; Hu, Chenming; Íñiguez, Jorge; Junquera, Javier; Chen, Long Qing; Muller, David A.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef.

In: Nature, Vol. 565, No. 7740, 24.01.2019, p. 468-471.

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

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T1 - Spatially resolved steady-state negative capacitance

AU - Yadav, Ajay K.

AU - Nguyen, Kayla X.

AU - Hong, Zijian

AU - García-Fernández, Pablo

AU - Aguado-Puente, Pablo

AU - Nelson, Christopher T.

AU - Das, Sujit

AU - Prasad, Bhagawati

AU - Kwon, Daewoong

AU - Cheema, Suraj

AU - Khan, Asif I.

AU - Hu, Chenming

AU - Íñiguez, Jorge

AU - Junquera, Javier

AU - Chen, Long Qing

AU - Muller, David A.

AU - Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

AU - Salahuddin, Sayeef

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N2 - Negative capacitance is a newly discovered state of ferroelectric materials that holds promise for electronics applications by exploiting a region of thermodynamic space that is normally not accessible 1–14 . Although existing reports of negative capacitance substantiate the importance of this phenomenon, they have focused on its macroscale manifestation. These manifestations demonstrate possible uses of steady-state negative capacitance—for example, enhancing the capacitance of a ferroelectric–dielectric heterostructure 4,7,14 or improving the subthreshold swing of a transistor 8–12 . Yet they constitute only indirect measurements of the local state of negative capacitance in which the ferroelectric resides. Spatial mapping of this phenomenon would help its understanding at a microscopic scale and also help to achieve optimal design of devices with potential technological applications. Here we demonstrate a direct measurement of steady-state negative capacitance in a ferroelectric–dielectric heterostructure. We use electron microscopy complemented by phase-field and first-principles-based (second-principles) simulations in SrTiO 3 /PbTiO 3 superlattices to directly determine, with atomic resolution, the local regions in the ferroelectric material where a state of negative capacitance is stabilized. Simultaneous vector mapping of atomic displacements (related to a complex pattern in the polarization field), in conjunction with reconstruction of the local electric field, identify the negative capacitance regions as those with higher energy density and larger polarizability: the domain walls where the polarization is suppressed.

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Yadav AK, Nguyen KX, Hong Z, García-Fernández P, Aguado-Puente P, Nelson CT et al. Spatially resolved steady-state negative capacitance. Nature. 2019 Jan 24;565(7740):468-471. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0855-y