Spatial symmetries occur in combination with temporal symmetries in a wide range of physical systems in nature, including time-periodic quantum systems typically described by the Floquet formalism. In this context, groups formed by three-dimensional point group symmetry operations in combination with time translation operations are discussed in this work. The derivation of these 'spatio-temporal' groups from conventional point groups and their irreducible representations is outlined, followed by a complete listing. The groups are presented in a template similar to space group operations, and are visualized using a modified version of conventional stereographic projections. Simple examples of physical processes that simultaneously exhibit symmetry in space and time are identified and used to illustrate the application of spatio-temporal groups.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computer Science (miscellaneous)
- Chemistry (miscellaneous)
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)