Long-range forces between macroscopic objects are mediated by light particles that interact with the electrons or nucleons, and include spin-dependent static components as well as spin- and velocity-dependent components. We parametrize the long-range potential between two fermions assuming rotational invariance, and find 16 different components. Applying this result to electrically neutral objects, we show that the macroscopic potential depends on 72 measurable parameters. We then derive the potential induced by the exchange of a new gauge boson or spinless particle, and compare the limits set by measurements of macroscopic forces to the astrophysical limits on the couplings of these particles.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics