Spitzer observations of IC 348

The disk population at 2-3 million years

Charles J. Lada, August A. Muench, Kevin Luhman, Lori Allen, Lee Hartmann, Tom Megeath, Philip Myers, Giovanni Fazio, Kenneth Wood, James Muzerolle, George Rieke, Nick Siegler, Erick Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

293 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present near- and mid-infrared photometry obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope of ~300 known members of the IC 348 cluster. We merge this photometry with existing ground-based optical and near-infrared photometry in order to construct optical-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for all the cluster members and present a complete atlas of these SEDs. We employ these observations to investigate both the frequency and nature of the circumstellar disk population in the cluster. The Spitzer observations span a wavelength range between 3.6 and 24 μm, corresponding to disk radii of ∼0.1 -5 AU from the central star. The observations are sufficiently sensitive to enable the first detailed measurement of the disk frequency for very low mass stars at the peak of the stellar initial mass function. Using measurements of infrared excess between 3.6 and 8.0 μm, we find the total frequency of disk-bearing stars in the cluster to be 50% ± 6%. However, only 30% ± 4% of the member stars are surrounded by optically thick, primordial disks, while the remaining disk-bearing stars are surrounded by what appear to be optically thin, anemic disks. Both these values are below previous estimates for this cluster. The disk fraction appears to be a function of spectral type and stellar mass. The fraction of stars with optically thick disks ranges from 11% ± 8% for stars earlier than K6 to 47% ± 12% for K6-M2 stars to 28% ± 5% for M2-M6 stars. The disk longevity and thus conditions for planet formation appear to be most favorable for the K6-M2 stars, which are objects of comparable mass to the Sun for the age of this cluster. The optically thick disks around later type (>M4) stars appear to be less flared than the disks around earlier type stars. This may indicate a greater degree of dust settling and a more advanced evolutionary state for the late M disk population. Finally, we find that the presence of an optically thick dust disk is correlated with gaseous accretion, as measured by the strength of Hα emission. A large fraction of stars classified as classical T Tauri stars possess robust, optically thick disks, and very few such stars are found to be diskless. The majority (64%) of stars classified as weak-lined T Tauri stars are found to be diskless. However, a significant fraction (12%) of these stars are found to be surrounded by thick, primordial disks. These results suggest that it is more likely for dust disks to persist in the absence of active gaseous accretion than for active accretion to persist in the absence of dusty disks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1574-1607
Number of pages34
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume131
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2006

Fingerprint

accretion
stars
dust
atlas
energy
near infrared
planet
wavelength
infrared photometry
T Tauri stars
spectral energy distribution
early stars
distribution
Space Infrared Telescope Facility
settling
stellar mass
photometry
planets
sun
radii

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Lada, C. J., Muench, A. A., Luhman, K., Allen, L., Hartmann, L., Megeath, T., ... Young, E. (2006). Spitzer observations of IC 348: The disk population at 2-3 million years. Astronomical Journal, 131(3), 1574-1607. https://doi.org/10.1086/499808
Lada, Charles J. ; Muench, August A. ; Luhman, Kevin ; Allen, Lori ; Hartmann, Lee ; Megeath, Tom ; Myers, Philip ; Fazio, Giovanni ; Wood, Kenneth ; Muzerolle, James ; Rieke, George ; Siegler, Nick ; Young, Erick. / Spitzer observations of IC 348 : The disk population at 2-3 million years. In: Astronomical Journal. 2006 ; Vol. 131, No. 3. pp. 1574-1607.
@article{a1357989ad254b59b9e0c301071458cf,
title = "Spitzer observations of IC 348: The disk population at 2-3 million years",
abstract = "We present near- and mid-infrared photometry obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope of ~300 known members of the IC 348 cluster. We merge this photometry with existing ground-based optical and near-infrared photometry in order to construct optical-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for all the cluster members and present a complete atlas of these SEDs. We employ these observations to investigate both the frequency and nature of the circumstellar disk population in the cluster. The Spitzer observations span a wavelength range between 3.6 and 24 μm, corresponding to disk radii of ∼0.1 -5 AU from the central star. The observations are sufficiently sensitive to enable the first detailed measurement of the disk frequency for very low mass stars at the peak of the stellar initial mass function. Using measurements of infrared excess between 3.6 and 8.0 μm, we find the total frequency of disk-bearing stars in the cluster to be 50{\%} ± 6{\%}. However, only 30{\%} ± 4{\%} of the member stars are surrounded by optically thick, primordial disks, while the remaining disk-bearing stars are surrounded by what appear to be optically thin, anemic disks. Both these values are below previous estimates for this cluster. The disk fraction appears to be a function of spectral type and stellar mass. The fraction of stars with optically thick disks ranges from 11{\%} ± 8{\%} for stars earlier than K6 to 47{\%} ± 12{\%} for K6-M2 stars to 28{\%} ± 5{\%} for M2-M6 stars. The disk longevity and thus conditions for planet formation appear to be most favorable for the K6-M2 stars, which are objects of comparable mass to the Sun for the age of this cluster. The optically thick disks around later type (>M4) stars appear to be less flared than the disks around earlier type stars. This may indicate a greater degree of dust settling and a more advanced evolutionary state for the late M disk population. Finally, we find that the presence of an optically thick dust disk is correlated with gaseous accretion, as measured by the strength of Hα emission. A large fraction of stars classified as classical T Tauri stars possess robust, optically thick disks, and very few such stars are found to be diskless. The majority (64{\%}) of stars classified as weak-lined T Tauri stars are found to be diskless. However, a significant fraction (12{\%}) of these stars are found to be surrounded by thick, primordial disks. These results suggest that it is more likely for dust disks to persist in the absence of active gaseous accretion than for active accretion to persist in the absence of dusty disks.",
author = "Lada, {Charles J.} and Muench, {August A.} and Kevin Luhman and Lori Allen and Lee Hartmann and Tom Megeath and Philip Myers and Giovanni Fazio and Kenneth Wood and James Muzerolle and George Rieke and Nick Siegler and Erick Young",
year = "2006",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1086/499808",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "131",
pages = "1574--1607",
journal = "Astronomical Journal",
issn = "0004-6256",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "3",

}

Lada, CJ, Muench, AA, Luhman, K, Allen, L, Hartmann, L, Megeath, T, Myers, P, Fazio, G, Wood, K, Muzerolle, J, Rieke, G, Siegler, N & Young, E 2006, 'Spitzer observations of IC 348: The disk population at 2-3 million years', Astronomical Journal, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 1574-1607. https://doi.org/10.1086/499808

Spitzer observations of IC 348 : The disk population at 2-3 million years. / Lada, Charles J.; Muench, August A.; Luhman, Kevin; Allen, Lori; Hartmann, Lee; Megeath, Tom; Myers, Philip; Fazio, Giovanni; Wood, Kenneth; Muzerolle, James; Rieke, George; Siegler, Nick; Young, Erick.

In: Astronomical Journal, Vol. 131, No. 3, 01.03.2006, p. 1574-1607.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Spitzer observations of IC 348

T2 - The disk population at 2-3 million years

AU - Lada, Charles J.

AU - Muench, August A.

AU - Luhman, Kevin

AU - Allen, Lori

AU - Hartmann, Lee

AU - Megeath, Tom

AU - Myers, Philip

AU - Fazio, Giovanni

AU - Wood, Kenneth

AU - Muzerolle, James

AU - Rieke, George

AU - Siegler, Nick

AU - Young, Erick

PY - 2006/3/1

Y1 - 2006/3/1

N2 - We present near- and mid-infrared photometry obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope of ~300 known members of the IC 348 cluster. We merge this photometry with existing ground-based optical and near-infrared photometry in order to construct optical-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for all the cluster members and present a complete atlas of these SEDs. We employ these observations to investigate both the frequency and nature of the circumstellar disk population in the cluster. The Spitzer observations span a wavelength range between 3.6 and 24 μm, corresponding to disk radii of ∼0.1 -5 AU from the central star. The observations are sufficiently sensitive to enable the first detailed measurement of the disk frequency for very low mass stars at the peak of the stellar initial mass function. Using measurements of infrared excess between 3.6 and 8.0 μm, we find the total frequency of disk-bearing stars in the cluster to be 50% ± 6%. However, only 30% ± 4% of the member stars are surrounded by optically thick, primordial disks, while the remaining disk-bearing stars are surrounded by what appear to be optically thin, anemic disks. Both these values are below previous estimates for this cluster. The disk fraction appears to be a function of spectral type and stellar mass. The fraction of stars with optically thick disks ranges from 11% ± 8% for stars earlier than K6 to 47% ± 12% for K6-M2 stars to 28% ± 5% for M2-M6 stars. The disk longevity and thus conditions for planet formation appear to be most favorable for the K6-M2 stars, which are objects of comparable mass to the Sun for the age of this cluster. The optically thick disks around later type (>M4) stars appear to be less flared than the disks around earlier type stars. This may indicate a greater degree of dust settling and a more advanced evolutionary state for the late M disk population. Finally, we find that the presence of an optically thick dust disk is correlated with gaseous accretion, as measured by the strength of Hα emission. A large fraction of stars classified as classical T Tauri stars possess robust, optically thick disks, and very few such stars are found to be diskless. The majority (64%) of stars classified as weak-lined T Tauri stars are found to be diskless. However, a significant fraction (12%) of these stars are found to be surrounded by thick, primordial disks. These results suggest that it is more likely for dust disks to persist in the absence of active gaseous accretion than for active accretion to persist in the absence of dusty disks.

AB - We present near- and mid-infrared photometry obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope of ~300 known members of the IC 348 cluster. We merge this photometry with existing ground-based optical and near-infrared photometry in order to construct optical-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for all the cluster members and present a complete atlas of these SEDs. We employ these observations to investigate both the frequency and nature of the circumstellar disk population in the cluster. The Spitzer observations span a wavelength range between 3.6 and 24 μm, corresponding to disk radii of ∼0.1 -5 AU from the central star. The observations are sufficiently sensitive to enable the first detailed measurement of the disk frequency for very low mass stars at the peak of the stellar initial mass function. Using measurements of infrared excess between 3.6 and 8.0 μm, we find the total frequency of disk-bearing stars in the cluster to be 50% ± 6%. However, only 30% ± 4% of the member stars are surrounded by optically thick, primordial disks, while the remaining disk-bearing stars are surrounded by what appear to be optically thin, anemic disks. Both these values are below previous estimates for this cluster. The disk fraction appears to be a function of spectral type and stellar mass. The fraction of stars with optically thick disks ranges from 11% ± 8% for stars earlier than K6 to 47% ± 12% for K6-M2 stars to 28% ± 5% for M2-M6 stars. The disk longevity and thus conditions for planet formation appear to be most favorable for the K6-M2 stars, which are objects of comparable mass to the Sun for the age of this cluster. The optically thick disks around later type (>M4) stars appear to be less flared than the disks around earlier type stars. This may indicate a greater degree of dust settling and a more advanced evolutionary state for the late M disk population. Finally, we find that the presence of an optically thick dust disk is correlated with gaseous accretion, as measured by the strength of Hα emission. A large fraction of stars classified as classical T Tauri stars possess robust, optically thick disks, and very few such stars are found to be diskless. The majority (64%) of stars classified as weak-lined T Tauri stars are found to be diskless. However, a significant fraction (12%) of these stars are found to be surrounded by thick, primordial disks. These results suggest that it is more likely for dust disks to persist in the absence of active gaseous accretion than for active accretion to persist in the absence of dusty disks.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33645220624&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33645220624&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1086/499808

DO - 10.1086/499808

M3 - Article

VL - 131

SP - 1574

EP - 1607

JO - Astronomical Journal

JF - Astronomical Journal

SN - 0004-6256

IS - 3

ER -

Lada CJ, Muench AA, Luhman K, Allen L, Hartmann L, Megeath T et al. Spitzer observations of IC 348: The disk population at 2-3 million years. Astronomical Journal. 2006 Mar 1;131(3):1574-1607. https://doi.org/10.1086/499808