Spitzer observations of massive, red galaxies at high redshift

C. Papovich, L. A. Moustakas, M. Dickinson, E. Le Floc'h, G. H. Rieke, E. Daddi, D. M. Alexander, F. Bauer, W. N. Brandt, T. Dahlen, E. Egami, P. Eisenhardt, D. Elbaz, H. C. Ferguson, M. Giavalisco, R. A. Lucas, B. Mobasher, P. G. Pérez-González, A. Stutz, M. J. RiekeH. Yan

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Abstract

We study massive galaxies at z ∼ 1-3.5 using HST optical imaging, ground-based near-IR imaging, and Spitzer observations at 3-24 μm. From Ks-selected galaxies in the ≃130 arcmin2 GOODS-S field, we identify 153 distant red galaxies (DRGs) with (J - Ks) Vega ≥ 2.3. This sample is approximately complete in stellar mass for passively evolving galaxies above 1011 M and z ≤ 3. Roughly half of the DRGs are objects whose optical and near-IR rest-frame light is dominated by evolved stars combined with ongoing star formation (at zmed ∼ 2.5), and the others are galaxies whose light is dominated by heavily reddened (A1600 ≳ 4-6 mag) starbursts (at zmed ∼ 1.7). Very few DRGs (≲ 10%) have no indication of current star formation. DRGs at z ∼ 1.5-3 with stellar masses ≥ 1011 M have specific star formation rates (SFRs per unit mass) including the reradiated far-IR emission that range from 0.2 to 10 Gyr-1. Based on the X-ray luminosities and rest-frame near-IR colors, roughly one-quarter of the DRGs contain AGNs, implying that the growth of supermassive black holes coincides with the formation of massive galaxies. At 1.5 ≤ z ≤ 3, the DRGs with M ≥ 1011 M have an integrated specific SFR comparable to the global value of all galaxies. In contrast, galaxies at z ∼ 0.3-0.75 with M ≥ 1011 M have an integrated specific SFR less than the global value and more than an order of magnitude lower than that for massive DRGs. At z ≲ 1, lower mass galaxies dominate the overall cosmic mass assembly. This suggests that the bulk of star formation in massive galaxies occurs at early cosmic epochs and is largely complete by z ∼ 1.5. Further mass assembly in these galaxies takes place with low specific SFRs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)92-113
Number of pages22
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume640
Issue number1 I
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 20 2006

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galaxies
star formation
stellar mass
assembly
star formation rate
indication
luminosity
time measurement
color
stars

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Papovich, C., Moustakas, L. A., Dickinson, M., Le Floc'h, E., Rieke, G. H., Daddi, E., ... Yan, H. (2006). Spitzer observations of massive, red galaxies at high redshift. Astrophysical Journal, 640(1 I), 92-113. https://doi.org/10.1086/499915
Papovich, C. ; Moustakas, L. A. ; Dickinson, M. ; Le Floc'h, E. ; Rieke, G. H. ; Daddi, E. ; Alexander, D. M. ; Bauer, F. ; Brandt, W. N. ; Dahlen, T. ; Egami, E. ; Eisenhardt, P. ; Elbaz, D. ; Ferguson, H. C. ; Giavalisco, M. ; Lucas, R. A. ; Mobasher, B. ; Pérez-González, P. G. ; Stutz, A. ; Rieke, M. J. ; Yan, H. / Spitzer observations of massive, red galaxies at high redshift. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2006 ; Vol. 640, No. 1 I. pp. 92-113.
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abstract = "We study massive galaxies at z ∼ 1-3.5 using HST optical imaging, ground-based near-IR imaging, and Spitzer observations at 3-24 μm. From Ks-selected galaxies in the ≃130 arcmin2 GOODS-S field, we identify 153 distant red galaxies (DRGs) with (J - Ks) Vega ≥ 2.3. This sample is approximately complete in stellar mass for passively evolving galaxies above 1011 M⊙ and z ≤ 3. Roughly half of the DRGs are objects whose optical and near-IR rest-frame light is dominated by evolved stars combined with ongoing star formation (at zmed ∼ 2.5), and the others are galaxies whose light is dominated by heavily reddened (A1600 ≳ 4-6 mag) starbursts (at zmed ∼ 1.7). Very few DRGs (≲ 10{\%}) have no indication of current star formation. DRGs at z ∼ 1.5-3 with stellar masses ≥ 1011 M⊙ have specific star formation rates (SFRs per unit mass) including the reradiated far-IR emission that range from 0.2 to 10 Gyr-1. Based on the X-ray luminosities and rest-frame near-IR colors, roughly one-quarter of the DRGs contain AGNs, implying that the growth of supermassive black holes coincides with the formation of massive galaxies. At 1.5 ≤ z ≤ 3, the DRGs with M ≥ 1011 M⊙ have an integrated specific SFR comparable to the global value of all galaxies. In contrast, galaxies at z ∼ 0.3-0.75 with M ≥ 1011 M ⊙have an integrated specific SFR less than the global value and more than an order of magnitude lower than that for massive DRGs. At z ≲ 1, lower mass galaxies dominate the overall cosmic mass assembly. This suggests that the bulk of star formation in massive galaxies occurs at early cosmic epochs and is largely complete by z ∼ 1.5. Further mass assembly in these galaxies takes place with low specific SFRs.",
author = "C. Papovich and Moustakas, {L. A.} and M. Dickinson and {Le Floc'h}, E. and Rieke, {G. H.} and E. Daddi and Alexander, {D. M.} and F. Bauer and Brandt, {W. N.} and T. Dahlen and E. Egami and P. Eisenhardt and D. Elbaz and Ferguson, {H. C.} and M. Giavalisco and Lucas, {R. A.} and B. Mobasher and P{\'e}rez-Gonz{\'a}lez, {P. G.} and A. Stutz and Rieke, {M. J.} and H. Yan",
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Papovich, C, Moustakas, LA, Dickinson, M, Le Floc'h, E, Rieke, GH, Daddi, E, Alexander, DM, Bauer, F, Brandt, WN, Dahlen, T, Egami, E, Eisenhardt, P, Elbaz, D, Ferguson, HC, Giavalisco, M, Lucas, RA, Mobasher, B, Pérez-González, PG, Stutz, A, Rieke, MJ & Yan, H 2006, 'Spitzer observations of massive, red galaxies at high redshift', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 640, no. 1 I, pp. 92-113. https://doi.org/10.1086/499915

Spitzer observations of massive, red galaxies at high redshift. / Papovich, C.; Moustakas, L. A.; Dickinson, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Rieke, G. H.; Daddi, E.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Dahlen, T.; Egami, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Elbaz, D.; Ferguson, H. C.; Giavalisco, M.; Lucas, R. A.; Mobasher, B.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Stutz, A.; Rieke, M. J.; Yan, H.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 640, No. 1 I, 20.03.2006, p. 92-113.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Spitzer observations of massive, red galaxies at high redshift

AU - Papovich, C.

AU - Moustakas, L. A.

AU - Dickinson, M.

AU - Le Floc'h, E.

AU - Rieke, G. H.

AU - Daddi, E.

AU - Alexander, D. M.

AU - Bauer, F.

AU - Brandt, W. N.

AU - Dahlen, T.

AU - Egami, E.

AU - Eisenhardt, P.

AU - Elbaz, D.

AU - Ferguson, H. C.

AU - Giavalisco, M.

AU - Lucas, R. A.

AU - Mobasher, B.

AU - Pérez-González, P. G.

AU - Stutz, A.

AU - Rieke, M. J.

AU - Yan, H.

PY - 2006/3/20

Y1 - 2006/3/20

N2 - We study massive galaxies at z ∼ 1-3.5 using HST optical imaging, ground-based near-IR imaging, and Spitzer observations at 3-24 μm. From Ks-selected galaxies in the ≃130 arcmin2 GOODS-S field, we identify 153 distant red galaxies (DRGs) with (J - Ks) Vega ≥ 2.3. This sample is approximately complete in stellar mass for passively evolving galaxies above 1011 M⊙ and z ≤ 3. Roughly half of the DRGs are objects whose optical and near-IR rest-frame light is dominated by evolved stars combined with ongoing star formation (at zmed ∼ 2.5), and the others are galaxies whose light is dominated by heavily reddened (A1600 ≳ 4-6 mag) starbursts (at zmed ∼ 1.7). Very few DRGs (≲ 10%) have no indication of current star formation. DRGs at z ∼ 1.5-3 with stellar masses ≥ 1011 M⊙ have specific star formation rates (SFRs per unit mass) including the reradiated far-IR emission that range from 0.2 to 10 Gyr-1. Based on the X-ray luminosities and rest-frame near-IR colors, roughly one-quarter of the DRGs contain AGNs, implying that the growth of supermassive black holes coincides with the formation of massive galaxies. At 1.5 ≤ z ≤ 3, the DRGs with M ≥ 1011 M⊙ have an integrated specific SFR comparable to the global value of all galaxies. In contrast, galaxies at z ∼ 0.3-0.75 with M ≥ 1011 M ⊙have an integrated specific SFR less than the global value and more than an order of magnitude lower than that for massive DRGs. At z ≲ 1, lower mass galaxies dominate the overall cosmic mass assembly. This suggests that the bulk of star formation in massive galaxies occurs at early cosmic epochs and is largely complete by z ∼ 1.5. Further mass assembly in these galaxies takes place with low specific SFRs.

AB - We study massive galaxies at z ∼ 1-3.5 using HST optical imaging, ground-based near-IR imaging, and Spitzer observations at 3-24 μm. From Ks-selected galaxies in the ≃130 arcmin2 GOODS-S field, we identify 153 distant red galaxies (DRGs) with (J - Ks) Vega ≥ 2.3. This sample is approximately complete in stellar mass for passively evolving galaxies above 1011 M⊙ and z ≤ 3. Roughly half of the DRGs are objects whose optical and near-IR rest-frame light is dominated by evolved stars combined with ongoing star formation (at zmed ∼ 2.5), and the others are galaxies whose light is dominated by heavily reddened (A1600 ≳ 4-6 mag) starbursts (at zmed ∼ 1.7). Very few DRGs (≲ 10%) have no indication of current star formation. DRGs at z ∼ 1.5-3 with stellar masses ≥ 1011 M⊙ have specific star formation rates (SFRs per unit mass) including the reradiated far-IR emission that range from 0.2 to 10 Gyr-1. Based on the X-ray luminosities and rest-frame near-IR colors, roughly one-quarter of the DRGs contain AGNs, implying that the growth of supermassive black holes coincides with the formation of massive galaxies. At 1.5 ≤ z ≤ 3, the DRGs with M ≥ 1011 M⊙ have an integrated specific SFR comparable to the global value of all galaxies. In contrast, galaxies at z ∼ 0.3-0.75 with M ≥ 1011 M ⊙have an integrated specific SFR less than the global value and more than an order of magnitude lower than that for massive DRGs. At z ≲ 1, lower mass galaxies dominate the overall cosmic mass assembly. This suggests that the bulk of star formation in massive galaxies occurs at early cosmic epochs and is largely complete by z ∼ 1.5. Further mass assembly in these galaxies takes place with low specific SFRs.

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Papovich C, Moustakas LA, Dickinson M, Le Floc'h E, Rieke GH, Daddi E et al. Spitzer observations of massive, red galaxies at high redshift. Astrophysical Journal. 2006 Mar 20;640(1 I):92-113. https://doi.org/10.1086/499915