Stability of action and kinesthetic perception in Parkinson’s disease

Joseph Ricotta, Mark L. Latash

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We present a review of action and perception stability within the theoretical framework based on the idea of control with spatial referent coordinates for the effectors at a number of hierarchical levels. Stability of salient variables is ensured by synergies, neurophysiological structures that act in multi-dimensional spaces of elemental variables and limit variance to the uncontrolled manifold during action and iso-perceptual manifold during perception. Patients with Parkinson’s disease show impaired synergic control reflected in poor stability (low synergy indices) and poor agility (low indices of anticipatory synergy adjustments prior to planned quick actions). They also show impaired perception across modalities, including kinesthetic perception. We suggest that poor stability at the level of referent coordinates can be the dominant factor leading to poor stability of percepts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)145-159
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Human Kinetics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 29 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Physiology (medical)


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