Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion

Alexander N. Klishko, Bradley J. Farrell, Irina N. Beloozerova, Mark L. Latash, Boris I. Prilutsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We investigated which of cat limb kinematic variables during swing of regular walking and accurate stepping along a horizontal ladder are stabilized by coordinated changes of limb segment angles. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) animals stabilize the entire swing trajectory of specific kinematic variables (performance variables); and 2) the level of trajectory stabilization is similar between regular and ladder walking and 3) is higher for forelimbs compared with hindlimbs. We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis to quantify the structure of variance of limb kinematics in the limb segment orientation space across steps. Two components of variance were quantified for each potential performance variable, one of which affected it (“bad variance,” variance orthogonal to the UCM, VORT) while the other one did not (“good variance,” variance within the UCM, VUCM). The analysis of five candidate performance variables revealed that cats during both locomotor behaviors stabilize 1) paw vertical position during the entire swing (VUCM ≤ VORT, except in mid-hindpaw swing of ladder walking) and 2) horizontal paw position in initial and terminal swing (except for the entire forepaw swing of regular walking). We also found that the limb length was typically stabilized in midswing, whereas limb orientation was not (VUCM ≤ VORT) for both limbs and behaviors during entire swing. We conclude that stabilization of paw position in early and terminal swing enables accurate and stable locomotion, while stabilization of vertical paw position in midswing helps paw clearance. This study is the first to demonstrate the applicability of the UCM-based analysis to nonhuman movement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1376-1391
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of neurophysiology
Volume112
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2014

Fingerprint

Locomotion
Cats
Extremities
Walking
Biomechanical Phenomena
Forelimb
Hindlimb

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Physiology

Cite this

Klishko, A. N., Farrell, B. J., Beloozerova, I. N., Latash, M. L., & Prilutsky, B. I. (2014). Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion. Journal of neurophysiology, 112(6), 1376-1391. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00663.2013
Klishko, Alexander N. ; Farrell, Bradley J. ; Beloozerova, Irina N. ; Latash, Mark L. ; Prilutsky, Boris I. / Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion. In: Journal of neurophysiology. 2014 ; Vol. 112, No. 6. pp. 1376-1391.
@article{64a0bb69d648400e9560e5da5c1671e9,
title = "Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion",
abstract = "We investigated which of cat limb kinematic variables during swing of regular walking and accurate stepping along a horizontal ladder are stabilized by coordinated changes of limb segment angles. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) animals stabilize the entire swing trajectory of specific kinematic variables (performance variables); and 2) the level of trajectory stabilization is similar between regular and ladder walking and 3) is higher for forelimbs compared with hindlimbs. We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis to quantify the structure of variance of limb kinematics in the limb segment orientation space across steps. Two components of variance were quantified for each potential performance variable, one of which affected it (“bad variance,” variance orthogonal to the UCM, VORT) while the other one did not (“good variance,” variance within the UCM, VUCM). The analysis of five candidate performance variables revealed that cats during both locomotor behaviors stabilize 1) paw vertical position during the entire swing (VUCM ≤ VORT, except in mid-hindpaw swing of ladder walking) and 2) horizontal paw position in initial and terminal swing (except for the entire forepaw swing of regular walking). We also found that the limb length was typically stabilized in midswing, whereas limb orientation was not (VUCM ≤ VORT) for both limbs and behaviors during entire swing. We conclude that stabilization of paw position in early and terminal swing enables accurate and stable locomotion, while stabilization of vertical paw position in midswing helps paw clearance. This study is the first to demonstrate the applicability of the UCM-based analysis to nonhuman movement.",
author = "Klishko, {Alexander N.} and Farrell, {Bradley J.} and Beloozerova, {Irina N.} and Latash, {Mark L.} and Prilutsky, {Boris I.}",
year = "2014",
month = "9",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1152/jn.00663.2013",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "112",
pages = "1376--1391",
journal = "Journal of Neurophysiology",
issn = "0022-3077",
publisher = "American Physiological Society",
number = "6",

}

Klishko, AN, Farrell, BJ, Beloozerova, IN, Latash, ML & Prilutsky, BI 2014, 'Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion', Journal of neurophysiology, vol. 112, no. 6, pp. 1376-1391. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00663.2013

Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion. / Klishko, Alexander N.; Farrell, Bradley J.; Beloozerova, Irina N.; Latash, Mark L.; Prilutsky, Boris I.

In: Journal of neurophysiology, Vol. 112, No. 6, 15.09.2014, p. 1376-1391.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion

AU - Klishko, Alexander N.

AU - Farrell, Bradley J.

AU - Beloozerova, Irina N.

AU - Latash, Mark L.

AU - Prilutsky, Boris I.

PY - 2014/9/15

Y1 - 2014/9/15

N2 - We investigated which of cat limb kinematic variables during swing of regular walking and accurate stepping along a horizontal ladder are stabilized by coordinated changes of limb segment angles. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) animals stabilize the entire swing trajectory of specific kinematic variables (performance variables); and 2) the level of trajectory stabilization is similar between regular and ladder walking and 3) is higher for forelimbs compared with hindlimbs. We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis to quantify the structure of variance of limb kinematics in the limb segment orientation space across steps. Two components of variance were quantified for each potential performance variable, one of which affected it (“bad variance,” variance orthogonal to the UCM, VORT) while the other one did not (“good variance,” variance within the UCM, VUCM). The analysis of five candidate performance variables revealed that cats during both locomotor behaviors stabilize 1) paw vertical position during the entire swing (VUCM ≤ VORT, except in mid-hindpaw swing of ladder walking) and 2) horizontal paw position in initial and terminal swing (except for the entire forepaw swing of regular walking). We also found that the limb length was typically stabilized in midswing, whereas limb orientation was not (VUCM ≤ VORT) for both limbs and behaviors during entire swing. We conclude that stabilization of paw position in early and terminal swing enables accurate and stable locomotion, while stabilization of vertical paw position in midswing helps paw clearance. This study is the first to demonstrate the applicability of the UCM-based analysis to nonhuman movement.

AB - We investigated which of cat limb kinematic variables during swing of regular walking and accurate stepping along a horizontal ladder are stabilized by coordinated changes of limb segment angles. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) animals stabilize the entire swing trajectory of specific kinematic variables (performance variables); and 2) the level of trajectory stabilization is similar between regular and ladder walking and 3) is higher for forelimbs compared with hindlimbs. We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis to quantify the structure of variance of limb kinematics in the limb segment orientation space across steps. Two components of variance were quantified for each potential performance variable, one of which affected it (“bad variance,” variance orthogonal to the UCM, VORT) while the other one did not (“good variance,” variance within the UCM, VUCM). The analysis of five candidate performance variables revealed that cats during both locomotor behaviors stabilize 1) paw vertical position during the entire swing (VUCM ≤ VORT, except in mid-hindpaw swing of ladder walking) and 2) horizontal paw position in initial and terminal swing (except for the entire forepaw swing of regular walking). We also found that the limb length was typically stabilized in midswing, whereas limb orientation was not (VUCM ≤ VORT) for both limbs and behaviors during entire swing. We conclude that stabilization of paw position in early and terminal swing enables accurate and stable locomotion, while stabilization of vertical paw position in midswing helps paw clearance. This study is the first to demonstrate the applicability of the UCM-based analysis to nonhuman movement.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84907247041&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84907247041&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1152/jn.00663.2013

DO - 10.1152/jn.00663.2013

M3 - Article

C2 - 24899676

AN - SCOPUS:84907247041

VL - 112

SP - 1376

EP - 1391

JO - Journal of Neurophysiology

JF - Journal of Neurophysiology

SN - 0022-3077

IS - 6

ER -

Klishko AN, Farrell BJ, Beloozerova IN, Latash ML, Prilutsky BI. Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion. Journal of neurophysiology. 2014 Sep 15;112(6):1376-1391. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00663.2013