Stable metal anodes enabled by a labile organic molecule bonded to a reduced graphene oxide aerogel

Yue Gao, Daiwei Wang, Yun Kyung Shin, Zhifei Yan, Zhuo Han, Ke Wang, Md Jamil Hossain, Shuling Shen, Atif AlZahrani, Adri C.T. van Duin, Thomas E. Mallouk, Donghai Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Metallic anodes (lithium, sodium, and zinc) are attractive for rechargeable battery technologies but are plagued by an unfavorable metal–electrolyte interface that leads to nonuniform metal deposition and an unstable solid–electrolyte interphase (SEI). Here we report the use of electrochemically labile molecules to regulate the electrochemical interface and guide even lithium deposition and a stable SEI. The molecule, benzenesulfonyl fluoride, was bonded to the surface of a reduced graphene oxide aerogel. During metal deposition, this labile molecule not only generates a metal-coordinating benzenesulfonate anion that guides homogeneous metal deposition but also contributes lithium fluoride to the SEI to improve Li surface passivation. Consequently, high-efficiency lithium deposition with a low nucleation overpotential was achieved at a high current density of 6.0 mA cm−2. A LijLiCoO2 cell had a capacity retention of 85.3% after 400 cycles, and the cell also tolerated low-temperature (−10 °C) operation without additional capacity fading. This strategy was applied to sodium and zinc anodes as well.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)30135-30141
Number of pages7
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume117
Issue number48
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

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