Stakeholder-based evaluation and value judgments

Melvin Michael Mark, R. Lance Shotland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

69 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The nature of values in stakeholder-based evaluations is discussed. One key value judgment involves the selection of stakeholder groups for participation. In the first major section of this article, the role of values in such selection is emphasized by considering two dimensions on which stakeholder groups may vary—power and legitimacy. It is shown that the selection of stakeholder groups can be based on a rationale for stakeholder-based evaluation; however, the choice of a rationale for stakeholder participation is itself a value judgment, implicitly or explicitly. Further, in implementing a rationale, value judgments are required, particularly if the rationale involves empowerment and democratization. In a second section, the consequences of stakeholder par ticipation are discussed. Although numerous commentaries imply positive effects, much is not known, such as the type or level of stakeholder involvement required for effective participation. Further, stakeholder participation may serve as a means of preempting criticism by stakeholders, or may be a form of pseudoempowerment. Ironically, the evaluator may autocratically designate which groups participate in a process meant to empower democratically. Finally, some suggestions are made about how evaluators might better deal with the value judgments inherent in stakeholder-based evaluations, and, more generally, how stakeholder-based approaches to evaluation might be improved.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)605-626
Number of pages22
JournalEvaluation Review
Volume9
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1985

Fingerprint

value judgement
stakeholder
evaluation
participation
Evaluation
Value Judgements
Stakeholders
Group
democratization
Values
empowerment
legitimacy
criticism

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Social Sciences(all)

Cite this

Mark, Melvin Michael ; Shotland, R. Lance. / Stakeholder-based evaluation and value judgments. In: Evaluation Review. 1985 ; Vol. 9, No. 5. pp. 605-626.
@article{1755c58f9ff24942ab4a17a974cf2e54,
title = "Stakeholder-based evaluation and value judgments",
abstract = "The nature of values in stakeholder-based evaluations is discussed. One key value judgment involves the selection of stakeholder groups for participation. In the first major section of this article, the role of values in such selection is emphasized by considering two dimensions on which stakeholder groups may vary—power and legitimacy. It is shown that the selection of stakeholder groups can be based on a rationale for stakeholder-based evaluation; however, the choice of a rationale for stakeholder participation is itself a value judgment, implicitly or explicitly. Further, in implementing a rationale, value judgments are required, particularly if the rationale involves empowerment and democratization. In a second section, the consequences of stakeholder par ticipation are discussed. Although numerous commentaries imply positive effects, much is not known, such as the type or level of stakeholder involvement required for effective participation. Further, stakeholder participation may serve as a means of preempting criticism by stakeholders, or may be a form of pseudoempowerment. Ironically, the evaluator may autocratically designate which groups participate in a process meant to empower democratically. Finally, some suggestions are made about how evaluators might better deal with the value judgments inherent in stakeholder-based evaluations, and, more generally, how stakeholder-based approaches to evaluation might be improved.",
author = "Mark, {Melvin Michael} and Shotland, {R. Lance}",
year = "1985",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1177/0193841X8500900504",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "9",
pages = "605--626",
journal = "Evaluation Review",
issn = "0193-841X",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",
number = "5",

}

Stakeholder-based evaluation and value judgments. / Mark, Melvin Michael; Shotland, R. Lance.

In: Evaluation Review, Vol. 9, No. 5, 01.01.1985, p. 605-626.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Stakeholder-based evaluation and value judgments

AU - Mark, Melvin Michael

AU - Shotland, R. Lance

PY - 1985/1/1

Y1 - 1985/1/1

N2 - The nature of values in stakeholder-based evaluations is discussed. One key value judgment involves the selection of stakeholder groups for participation. In the first major section of this article, the role of values in such selection is emphasized by considering two dimensions on which stakeholder groups may vary—power and legitimacy. It is shown that the selection of stakeholder groups can be based on a rationale for stakeholder-based evaluation; however, the choice of a rationale for stakeholder participation is itself a value judgment, implicitly or explicitly. Further, in implementing a rationale, value judgments are required, particularly if the rationale involves empowerment and democratization. In a second section, the consequences of stakeholder par ticipation are discussed. Although numerous commentaries imply positive effects, much is not known, such as the type or level of stakeholder involvement required for effective participation. Further, stakeholder participation may serve as a means of preempting criticism by stakeholders, or may be a form of pseudoempowerment. Ironically, the evaluator may autocratically designate which groups participate in a process meant to empower democratically. Finally, some suggestions are made about how evaluators might better deal with the value judgments inherent in stakeholder-based evaluations, and, more generally, how stakeholder-based approaches to evaluation might be improved.

AB - The nature of values in stakeholder-based evaluations is discussed. One key value judgment involves the selection of stakeholder groups for participation. In the first major section of this article, the role of values in such selection is emphasized by considering two dimensions on which stakeholder groups may vary—power and legitimacy. It is shown that the selection of stakeholder groups can be based on a rationale for stakeholder-based evaluation; however, the choice of a rationale for stakeholder participation is itself a value judgment, implicitly or explicitly. Further, in implementing a rationale, value judgments are required, particularly if the rationale involves empowerment and democratization. In a second section, the consequences of stakeholder par ticipation are discussed. Although numerous commentaries imply positive effects, much is not known, such as the type or level of stakeholder involvement required for effective participation. Further, stakeholder participation may serve as a means of preempting criticism by stakeholders, or may be a form of pseudoempowerment. Ironically, the evaluator may autocratically designate which groups participate in a process meant to empower democratically. Finally, some suggestions are made about how evaluators might better deal with the value judgments inherent in stakeholder-based evaluations, and, more generally, how stakeholder-based approaches to evaluation might be improved.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84970325755&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84970325755&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/0193841X8500900504

DO - 10.1177/0193841X8500900504

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84970325755

VL - 9

SP - 605

EP - 626

JO - Evaluation Review

JF - Evaluation Review

SN - 0193-841X

IS - 5

ER -