Ethnopharmacological relevance Xylocarpus moluccensis (Lamk.) M. Roem of family Meliaceae has triterpenoids rich fruits. Triterpenoids have been known to possess cardioprotection and anti-atherosclerotic activities (Han and Bakovic, 2015; Wu et al., 2009). Standardized fraction of these fruits exhibited anti-dyslipidemic (Srivastava et al., 2015), anti-inflammatory (Ravangpai et al., 2011) and CNS depressant activity (Sarker et al., 2007). However, there is no report in the literature on its cardiovascular effects. Aim of the study The present study was undertaken to assess vasoprotective, anti-atherosclerotic and further examine the anti-dyslipidemic effect of the standardized fraction of Xylocarpus moluccensis (F018) fruits in the mechanical injury and high fat diet (HFD) induced dyslipidemic/ atherosclerosis models. Materials and methods Guinea pigs were fed 0.08% cholesterol + 15% fat diet for 3 weeks, while ApoE KO mice were fed high fat diet for 18 weeks to induce dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. A combination of balloon injury and high fat diet (1% cholesterol, 6% peanut oil) for 5 weeks was used to accelerate atherosclerosis in NZW rabbits. F018 was administered once daily by oral route in guinea pigs (10, 25 or 50 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks), ApoE KO mice (50 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks) and in NZW rabbit (25 mg/kg/day for 5 weeks) to monitor its effect on dyslipidemia, vasoreactivity and plaque composition by using standard methodologies. Results F018 treatment in guinea pigs (25 and 50 mg/kg/day), ApoE mice (50 mg/kg/day) and rabbits (25 mg/kg/day) significantly reduced plasma lipids and improved ACh induced vasorelaxation. Anti-dyslipidemic effect of F018 seems to be due to the modulation of enterohepatic genes involved in the cholesterol absorption and excretion. Moreover, significant improvement in the acetylcholine (ACh) induced vasorelaxation was accompanied with reduced inflammatory burden and enhanced activation of eNOS in ApoE mice aortic tissue. Similarly inflammatory cytokines, immunolabeling of macrophage marker (CD68) and MMP-9 were reduced along with augmentation in vascular smooth muscle cells and collagen type I and III in the mechanically injured iliac artery segment in the rabbits. Conclusions Altogether, F018 preserved vasoreactivity, reduced atherosclerotic plaque progression and enhanced plaque stability by reducing lipids, inflammatory cytokines, improving endothelial function and collagen content.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Drug Discovery